e-Discussion: Forced migration and development

English

Please note, that the e-discussion now has been closed. To read the consolidated reply please click here.

 

In collaboration with UNHCR Brussels, the Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI) is pleased to launch this e-discussion on “Forced Migration and Development”.

The specific focus on forced migrants becomes necessary when recognizing that within the wider migration and development discussion refugees and other forcibly displaced persons, such as Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), are a distinct group. Although it is sometimes difficult to make a clear distinction between forms of forced and voluntary migration due to the mixed, complex and shifting motivations of migrants as well as mixed migration movements, the motivation of most voluntary migrants is to find work, earn a better income or enjoy education, while forced migrants flee from their homes due to armed conflicts, violence, fear of persecution or natural or human made disasters and are therefore in need of protection, shelter and the assistance in meeting their basic needs.

Forced displacement means loss of housing, land and property, jobs, physical assets, social networks and resources, and changes in family dynamics and traditional gender roles. It has been documented that too often displacement also results in food insecurity, increased morbidity and mortality, and social marginalization. Often access to services such as education and health becomes exceedingly difficult because the displaced may have left behind the necessary personal documentation, may not be recognized as having any entitlements under the local government authority where they now reside, or because they no longer have the means to pay for school fees and health services and often lack traditional support networks in their new environment. Together these conditions push the displaced into a cycle of vulnerability, which may grow even worse in those protracted displacement situations where successive generations are affected.

In their vulnerable state, refugees and other forced migrants are beneficiaries of humanitarian aid providing short-term relief in situations of high vulnerability after being forced to flee. However, they are frequently excluded from long-term development programmes. This inadequate response to the needs of IDPs and refugees, continues to be the single major obstacle to durable solutions for forcibly displaced persons. The continued perception that concerns of forced displacement can only be addressed by humanitarian means is ill-conceived, and has resulted in the protracted displacements of millions of forcibly displaced persons, unable to find solutions for their displacement that can assist them to break from the cycle of dependence on humanitarian assistance and to move on with their lives.

Protracted displacement means also the prolonged presence of large numbers of forced migrants which may have a negative impact on the development of host communities due to pressure on local resources, infrastructure and services, along with environmental degradation. In this regard we have to bear in mind, that the majority of the hosting countries are developing and poor countries. Today of an estimated 214 million people living outside their country of origin, some 34 million are people of concern to UNHCR (including refugees, asylum-seekers, returnees, IDPs and stateless persons, while not including refugees under the mandate of UNRWA). Whether in urban contexts or in camp setting, the vast majority of them live in developing countries, primarily in Africa and Asia, which are themselves often struggling to meet the basic needs of their own populations.

Supporting forced migrants to find solutions through self-reliance and livelihoods, in return or in host countries, not only enables them to make their own living while helping to reduce the compulsion for secondary movement, but allows them also to contribute to developing the local economy and communities. Too often, the productive and peacebuilding potential of forcibly displaced is disregarded. That is why integrating refugee or returnee programmes into national development plans is important for maximising gains to both forced migrants and local populations. In this sense it would be a mistake to ignore the forced migrants’ strength to contribute to development or to neglect them in the migration and development discussion. It is this concept of forced migrants being “agents of development” that we would like to explore in the context of this e-discussion.

The e-discussion will last three weeks, from 10 to 7 February 2011. Please feel free to answer during this period as many, or as few of the questions raised below. We warmly encourage you to participate in the e-discussion by emailing m4d@groups.dev-nets.org or posting your comments online in the Migration4Development forum here. Please note that responses to the e-discussion are not automatically shared but go to the facilitation teams for compilation.

 

 

Questions

Who are forced migrants?

  • Who is a refugee, an asylum seeker, an internally displaced person (IDP) and a returnee?

Forced migrants’ contribution to development

  • Can you share any examples of how forced migrants use their skills and capacities to contribute to development and post-conflict reconstruction?
  • What are the necessary conditions for forced migrants to contribute to the development of their host states/regions/communities as well as those of origin?

Supporting forced migrants’ contribution to development

  • Is it necessary to develop specific migration and development programmes for forced migrants? Can you share any specific examples with the e-discussion?
  • Why is it so difficult to include forced displacement on the development agenda of donors, governments and development agencies’ programmes and funds?
  • Even where forced migrants receive some assistance for return, why are the longer-term needs of the returnees not systematically integrated into the reconstruction planning?
  • How can humanitarian actors adapt their programmes further to facilitate early recovery without compromising humanitarian principles?
  • How can additional, flexible and timely transitional and development assistance be ensured for refugees who are non-citizens?

 

Below I give you some concrete field experiences and JRS initiatives that you might find useful, especially focused on the questions regarding how forced migrants can use their skills and capacities to contribute to post-conflict reconstruction and also the question of assistance for return.

1. Urban refugees

As you can read from below and our first Newsletter on Urban Refugees (available in the M4D Library, especially interesting for you p. 19-21), our experience is that refugees have the possibility to earn some income for their own survival during exile. This opens possibilities of economic potential (I would be careful of talking of "development") in the countries where they live. But we find little, if none, examples of people who can be able to send remittances. Slowly, JRS is finding interesting IGA experiences, especially in these contexts:

1.1 In Nairobi, JRS Kenya operates the Urban Emergency Program.  JRS provides emergency assistance through food and non-food items such as cooking utensils, blankets and other materials to assist newly arrived asylum seekers for about 3-4 months, before they can find their way. This is done through the parish outreach programme, where five parish churches assist JRS in distributing these supplies. In addition, income-generating assistance in the form of short-term loans; scholarships for refugee children to attend nursery, secondary school and adult education (short-courses) are also provided.  JRS Kenya also conducts home visits to assess the vulnerability and need articulated by these asylum seekers, before they are included in the programs. In dire cases, medical assistance is provided as well.

1.2 In Kampala, the JRS urban program has been in existence since 1998.

Limited food assistance for new asylum seekers, assistance with rent payments for those particularly in need and medical support are part of the services provided under this program.  Furthermore, skills training in income-generating activities aimed at promoting self-reliance is undertaken.  Successful applicants have the opportunity to train in driving, hairdressing, soap-making, computer classes, catering, etc. English language classes are also offered, to help asylum seekers integrate into the community, since many of them are Francophone speakers in an Anglophone speaking country. In all these urban programs, asylum seekers and refugees from the DRC, Rwanda, Burundi, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea are all assisted.

1.3 For your information, JRS and Georgetown University are working on a research project in support of JRS's review of its engagement in service to urban refugees. In brief, this project, to be conducted during the winter and spring of 2011, will take the form of a broad survey of past and present JRS projects benefiting urban refugees, and a more in depth description of several key projects.

1.4 Last year JRS undertook an evaluation on its IGA programs with some relevant recommendations and lessons learnt. If you require further information, please contact Amaya Valcarcel (see contact details below).

2. On the question of how forced migrants use their skills and capacities to contribute to development and post-conflict reconstruction, linked to the issue of assistance for return, the following are some reflections of JRS workers in the Thai-Cambodia border camps that can be useful as well.

2.1 The repatriation of Cambodian refugees in time for the well attended May 1994 elections was organized by UNHCR, and was an integral part of the United Nation’s efforts to institute democracy and to place a new government in Phnom Penh. Some of the repatriates had been 12 years in exile.  The United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) was successful in some of its goals. UNHCR brought home more than 367,500 Cambodians. However, UNTAC failed to disarm the forces active in Cambodia or to de-mine the country. In addition, as numbers of returnees increased, UNTAC lost some control over tracking them and monitoring their safety. UNHCR had difficulty in giving useful repatriation assistance to returned refugees in Cambodia, especially in regard to securing land for cultivation. Many of the returnees had to choose what came to be known as ‘option C’ from UNHCR, or cash and food but no land. In addition, small development projects, begun by UNHCR in order to rebuild infrastructure (roads and bridges) were not very effective. 

The Cambodian case cleary illustrates the need for significant investment in de-arming, de-mining and development work before, during and after the repatriation process. It also points to the need for other organizations to get more significantly involved in helping internally displaced persons. If these elements had been better secured by the UN or others in this operation, it might have been a real model for repatriations for the future.

2.2 Most of the 400,000 refugees came from the Northern part of Cambodia. We should have paid more attention to this fact since our work on the Cambodia side focused in Phnom Penh. There, we started working with victims of landmines and organizing seminars on peace and reconciliation. These seminars were aimed at the reconstruction of the country, with basic training for young Cambodians who later engaged in NGO work, parliamentary groups, etc., building bridges with those who later arrived. With the people in the camps we did not do this kind of work, which could have been very useful. The main aim in the camps was to close them as soon as possible.

2.3 Another useful thing we could have done is pay more attention to families. In Cambodia, the family is a cultural value. In the camps, families were not only a value but a meaning of survival: if there were more children, there were more rations, more benefits. What happened is that when repatriation took place many Cambodians had the conflict on whether to stay with the family they had created in the camps, or go back with the ones they had left for several reasons in Cambodia. This sometimes led to violence.

2.4 The fact that in the camps many refugees acquired important training skills during the 10 or 12 years in exile (computers, English, etc) also created a conflict with those who had stayed in Cambodia. Upon return, many of these skills were not used enough. We should be very careful that all these skills, although acquired in a provisional situation, do not get lost.

None of these experiences and initiatives are labelled as "migration and development" cases but I hope they are useful.

Best regards,

Amaya Valcarcel

JRS International Advocacy Coordinator

Borgo Santo Spirito 4,

00193 Roma, ITALY

Tel +39 06 68977465

Fax +39 06 68977461

E-mail: <international.advocacy@jrs.net>

Forced migrants’ contribution to development

With the widespread of long-term forced migration, this kind of human mobility, could contribute to migration and development in a way or another. Established forced migrants - refugees and asylum seekers could be considered as development agents, first by engagement with their nationals in destination and strengthening their array of skills and knowledge acquired during exile as well as their social capital being built and strengthened while being far from their hometowns as well as knowledge and skill transfer after return.

Despite the fact that refugees and asylum seekers face a lot of problems and intervening factors while in exile, they acquire knowledge and strengthen their skills. The accumulated skills could be utilized to foster development in their origin when they return.

In addition, refugees and asylum seekers contribute to the development of host countries by providing the labor force need in the host economy. Hence, refugees and asylum seekers can contribute to the host economy while being in exile and to their home countries when they return.

Ayman Zohry

JMDI Migrant Advisory Board Member

Dear Community of Practice members. Please find below some further reading on our current e-discussion on “Forced Migration and Development” as well as some information on JMDI projects targeting forced migrants.

Further reading:

  • Forced Migration Online (FMO): Introductory guide to forced migration. [This guide gives some information on how to define forced migration.]
  • UNHCR: Forced migration and development. 1st Global Forum on Migration and Development (Brussels, 9 - 11 July 2007) [In its contribution to the 1st GFMD in 2007 the UNHCR highlights three links between forced migration and development: a) the potential of large-scale refugee populations to development, b) the contribution of returnees to the process of peace building and post-conflict reconstruction, and c) the way in which failed development processes lead to forced migration.]
  • Jesuit Refugee Service: Liberia. The practical contributions of the forcibly displaced to development. [In this paper the JRS gives a concrete example of how forced migrants contributed to the development and post-conflict reconstruction in Liberia after the civil war.]

JMDI projects targeting forced migrants:

  • [Gh-246] Buduburam Community Capacity Development Initiative [This project provides capacity development support to help the establishment of self-reliant economic empowerment initiatives to improve the lives of refugees living in and those of the local community living around the Buduburam refugee camp, established by UNHCR in 1990 near Accra, Ghana.]
  • [N-226] Migrant Rights: Nigerian-Polish Initiative [This project enhances the protection of the rights of asylum-seekers and refugees in Poland - most of them coming from Nigeria - through the provision of counseling, consultation services and legal assistance.]

The JMDI M4D-net facilitation Team

 

Who are forced migrants?

  • Who is a refugee, an asylum seeker, an internally displaced person (IDP) and a returnee?

Forced migration has also forced different definitions to be applied to the victims of the circumstances. Article 1A of the 1951 UN Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, defines a refugee as a person who resides outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to avail himself of the protection of that country, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion. The concept of a refugee was expanded by the Convention's 1967 Protocol and by regional conventions in Africa and Latin America to include persons who had fled war or other violence in their home country.

An asylum seeker is a person who processes application for refugee status in a country outside his or her country of nationality. Those that have already completed an application for the granting of the refugee status outside their country of nationality but awaiting for the refugee status decision outside the country of his nationality are classified as asylum seekers.

An internally displaced person (IDP) is a person who is forced to flee his or her home but who, unlike a refugee, remains within his country's borders. Our experience shows that the definition of Internally displaced persons now encompasses a wide range of natural, psychological, physical, mental, social and economic circumstances that push such persons into a cycle of vulnerability. Persons who experience loss of houses, land and property, jobs, physical assets, social networks and resources, and changes in family dynamics and traditional gender roles, food insecurity, increased morbidity and mortality, and social marginalization.

Wisdom Ejebugha
 
Rule of Law Institute Foundation
ul. Chopina 14/70
20-023 Lublin POLAND
tel./fax: +48 81 743 68 05 ext. 28

 

Who are forced migrants?

In June 2010, on the occasion of the World Refugee Day celebrated in Africa, the African Union (AU) pointed out that there are over 10 million people affected by forced displacement in Africa, including some 2.1 million refugees, 305,000 asylum-seekers, more than 6.3 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and an estimated 100,000 stateless people.

Forced migrants can be described as people forced to move due to unbearable challenges to livelihoods due to natural or man-made conditions, political, social and/or religious persecution.  In some cases the displacement is sudden and unplanned, taking place under very dangerous conditions. Movement can be in mass, groups or as individuals – as for example the situation in Sudan, Côte d'Ivoire, and Zimbabwe.

For further information please visit the following websites:

Disputed elections in Côte d'Ivoire: http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportID=91616 

Post poll camps in Kenya: http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportID=90714

The African Refugee Development Center: http://www.change.org/profile/view/121663

Forced migrants’ contribution to development

  • Can you share any examples of how forced migrants use their skills and capacities to contribute to development and post-conflict reconstruction?

There are past examples of forced migrants who have been engaged in war, giving up their weapons, and contributing to the peace process and reconciliation. In some case the returning migrants bring back the much needed skills to support development e.g. skilled and unskilled labour. In some case the migrants contribute to the political process.

What are the necessary conditions for forced migrants to contribute to the development of their host states/regions/communities as well as those of origin?

·        Statutory obligations and policies that set the context of integration with the provision of resources to enable the process;

·        All partner organizations working in partnership “with the migrants” rather than “doing to the migrants “;

·        Targeted support, e.g. facilitate access to services by ensuring that forced migrants are aware of their entitlements and know how to access;

·        Empowerment of forced migrants to overcome challenges and discriminatory practices and recognition of their contribution to the host community, e.g. advocacy, languages, welfare and network support;

·        Understanding that migrants are not a homogenous group but are diverse in ethnicity, gender, age, educational background, marital status, abilities and faith. The needs should be linked to mainstream services;

·       Moving away from “permanent and/or long term camps which only serves to isolate rather than integrate.

Supporting forced migrants’ contribution to development

  • Why is it so difficult to include forced displacement on the development agenda of donors, governments and development agencies’ programmes and funds?

This is because the host government does not necessarily see forced migrants as their constituents especially if they are non-nationals sometimes referred to as “stateless”. Donors will have to acknowledge their existence and provide additional support to the host country targeted to the migrants in addition to the business as usual donor support. Is it a question of accountability and responsibility?

  • How can humanitarian actors adapt their programmes further to facilitate early recovery without compromising humanitarian principles?

·        Advocating to policy makers so that lessons learnt can be mainstreamed into service planning;

·        Using ex- returnees to review and adapt the programme, acknowledging that the dynamics change and thus require regular review.

  • How can additional, flexible and timely transitional and development assistance be ensured for refugees who are non-citizens?

Providing long term support and targeted resources rather than one off.

 

Dr. Titilola Banjoko

JMDI Migrant Advisory Board Member

E-mail: tbanjoko@africarecruit.com

 

Who are forced migrants?

I would like to add economic migrants to the list of forced migrants (refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced people (IDPs), returnees).

 

Forced migrants’ contribution to development

  • Can you share any examples of how forced migrants use their skills and capacities to contribute to development and post-conflict reconstruction?
  • What are the necessary conditions for forced migrants to contribute to the development of their host states/regions/communities as well as those of origin?

All migrants including forced migrants are expected to improve the level of empowerment, policy commitments and financial rewards. The Sri Lankan Tamil Diaspora has to be involved in these efforts. In Sri Lanka this was done by offering several incentives for migrants from the national budget; the Minister for economic development has appealed to all individuals abroad and invited them to participate in development activities.

Regards

 

David

National Workers Congress/Migrants Services Centre

SRI LANKA

Who are forced migrants?

Don't forget about victims of human trafficking.

Your definition of forced migrants has left out people who have been trafficked. Many of these people contribute significantly to the development of their host countries whilst receiving limited benefits, services or recognition for their hard work. There are for example millions of trafficked laborers working around the world on construction projects. It is paramount that we remember these victims when we discuss about migration and development.

 

There are different reasons why people migrate, while some migrate voluntarily for economic gains and better lifestyle others are forced to migrate due to human or natural factors that cannot be helped.

Who are forced migrants?

Forced migrants are people who are forced to flee their homes or native land or country whether due to varying reasons, ranging from disasters, conflict situations and development issues.

Refugee comes from the word ‘refuge’ and is defined by Article 1 of the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees as a person residing outside his or her country of nationality and who is unable or unwilling to return due to a ‘well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a political social group, or political opinion’.

Asylum seekers on the other hand are people waiting to become refugees. Asylum seekers move across international borders to seek protection under the Refugee Convention, but their claim for refugee status have still to be determined.

According to the 1992 report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, internally displaced persons are ‘persons who have been forced to flee their homes suddenly or unexpectedly in large numbers, as a result of armed conflict, internal strife, systematic violations of human rights or natural or man-made disasters, and who are within the territory of their own country.’

Forced migrants’ contribution to development

The fact that people are classified as refugees, asylum seekers or internally displaced persons does not in any way affect their capabilities or their mental capacity even though cannot be denied that they went through a traumatic experience.

  • Can you share any examples of how forced migrants use their skills and capacities to contribute to development and post-conflict reconstruction?

Forced migrants’ ability to contribute positively to the development of their host country should not be undermined. In the 1970s and early 1980s when for development factors there was mass exodus of Ghanaians from Ghana to neighbouring African countries, the educated ones in Nigeria worked as math teachers in primary and post primary schools and the not too educated ones worked in the informal sector such as hairdresser and dressmakers. In fact, at some point they were preferred to the Nigerians working in those sectors because of the quality of their work.

  • What are the necessary conditions for forced migrants to contribute to the development of their host states/regions/communities as well as those of origin?

In order for forced migrants to positively contribute to the development of their host countries there is need to provide them with an enabling environment. For instance their human rights especially with respect to work and wages should be well protected.

Supporting forced migrants’ contribution to development

  • Is it necessary to develop specific migration and development programmes for forced migrants? Can you share any specific examples with the e-discussion?

Although I am not unmindful of initiatives to ensure lasting global peace, it is quite idealistic to think that the world will be conflict free. Nevertheless, it can be managed to the barest minimum. If the world succeeds in reducing conflict situation to the barest minimum we may not be that successful on averting natural disasters and it is for these reasons and many more that it is needful to have forced displacement on development agenda of all relevant agencies.

There is an urgent need for host countries to develop policies and make laws with respect to asylum seekers with human face. The delays experienced in the processing of asylum applications should be done away with. Asylum seekers are human beings and thus should be protected by the various human rights instruments; they should therefore be accorded these rights as much as possible. The rights of refugees and standard of treatment as set out in the Conventions should be complied with by the host countries. Likewise countries of origin should plan ahead in terms of budgetary allocations to cater for internally displaced people.

 

UNITED KINGDOM

 

Forced migrants' contribution to development

  • What are the necessary conditions for forced migrants to contribute to the development of their host states/regions/communities as well as those of origin?

It is important to ensure that their documentation is in order and to facilitate the process to ensure that ‘labelling’ of these people does not take place. In this way they can play an equal role in the local economic development of the areas in which they are settled (whether temporarily or more permanently).

Local economic development planning is built upon the concept of an inclusive approach, but most often forced migrants are not considered as part of the equation and get left out like other vulnerable groups such as young women and men, the poor, etc.

Thus a more inclusive approach is necessary which will not only draw the best out of the experience of these people but also enrich the process and ensure that a cross section of needs are taken into consideration to provide a comprehensive needs-based development response.

Supporting forced migrants' contribution to development

  • Is it necessary to develop specific migration and development programmes for forced migrants?  Can you share any specific examples with the e-discussion?

I believe an inclusive approach in general is the better approach. However, not compromising special needs of forced migrants, e.g. psycho social support (especially in case of victims of trafficking), sensitivity to their religious practices, etc.

  • Even where forced migrants receive some assistance for return, why are the longer-term needs of the returnees not systematically integrated into the reconstruction planning?

Often because they get left out of the whole consultative process that informs the reconstruction planning and implementation. Thus the recommended path is to take an inclusive approach and give forced migrants an equal voice.

  • How can additional, flexible and timely transitional and development assistance be ensured for refugees who are non-citizens?

Having systems in place to enumerate them and provide fiscal space in programmes taking their specific needs into account and allocating sufficient and efficient human resourced to address the issues within the administrative framework charged with such duties.

 

International Labour Organization (ILO)
SRI LANKA

New publications on forced migration:
Sunil S. Amrith, Migration and Diaspora in Modern Asia, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Anthanasia Batziou, Picturing Immigration: Photojournalistic Representation of Immigrants in Greek and Spanish Press, Intellect Books, 2011.
Aquiline S.J. Tarmino, Ethnicity, Citizenship and State in Eastern Africa, African Books Collective, 2011.
Alexander Betts, Global Migration Governance, Oxford University Press, 2011.
Jacqueline Bhabha, Children Without a State: A Global Human Rights Challenge, MIT Press, 2011.
Emma Carmel, Theo Papadopoulos, Alfio Cerami, Migration and Welfare in the 'new' Europe: Social Protection and the Challenges of Integration, The Policy Press, 2011.
Tim Cresswell, Peter Merriman, Geographies of Mobilities: Practices, Spaces, Subjects, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Mary Crock, Laurie Berg, Immigration, Refugees and Forced Migration: Law, Policy and Practice in Australia, Federation Press, 2011.
Elvira Fuchs, Immigration Policy in Canada: Fachbereichsarbeit, GRIN Verlag, 2011.
Thomas Gammeloft-Hansen, Access to Asylum: International Refugee Law and the Globalisation of Migration Control, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Andrew Geddes, International Migration, SAGE Publications, Limited, 2011,
Steven Gold, Stephanie J. Nawyn, Routledge Handbook of International Migration, Taylor & Francis, 2011.
Eva-Maria Hengsbach, Migrations-und Integrationspolitik im interkulturellen Vergleich Deutschland-Kanada/Québec: Konzeptionen, Integrationsmaßnahmen im Bildungsbereich, Evaluationsansätze, GRIN Verlag, 2011.
Paivi Hoikkala, Dorothy D. Wills, Dimensions of International Migration, Cambridge Scholars Publisher, 2011.
Hynes, The Dispersal and Social Exclusion of Asylum Seekers: Between Liminality and Belonging, The Policy Press, 2011.
Albert Kraler, Eleonore Kofman, Martin Kohli, Camille Schmoll, Gender, Generations and the Family in International Migration, Amsterdam University Press, 2011.
La naturalisation: un passeport pour une meilleure intégration des immigrés ?, OECD Publishing, 2011
Altay Manco, Sypros Amoranitis, Migrants et développement: Politiques, pratiques et acteurs en Belgique, L'Harmattan, 2011
Andrew Markus, Moshe Semyonov, Immigration and Nation Building: Australia and Israel Compared, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011
Ann-Katrin Metzger, Migration und Erwerbspendler im Oberrheingraben, GRIN Verlag, 2011.
Bogumil Terminski, Miedzynarodowa ochrona pracownikow migrujacych. Geneza, instytucje, oddzialywanie, Wydawnictwa Universytetu Warsawskiego, 2011.
Yves Pascouau, La politique migratoire de l'Union européenne: De Schengen à Lisbonne, LGDJ, 2011.
Peter Penz, Jay Drydyk, Pablo S. Bose, Displacement by Development: Ethics, Rights and Responsibilities, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011.
Ryan Pevnick, Immigration and the Constraints of Justice: Between Open Borders and Absolute Sovereignty, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Klaus Roth, Robert Hayden, Migration In, From, and to Southeastern Europe, LIT Verlag Münster, 2011.
Dinesh Bhugra, Susham Gupta, Migration and Mental Health, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Caroline Sawyer,Brad K. Blitz, Statelessness in the European Union: Displaced, Undocumented, Unwanted, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Esther Schuch, Globalization, Global Migration and Its Impact on a Regional Level: Field Study: The Border Between Spain and Morocco, GRIN Verlag, 2011.
Bogusia Temple, Rhetta Moran, Doing Research With Refugees: Issues and Guidelines, The Policy Press, 2011.
Molly Todd, Beyond Displacement: Campesinos, Refugees, and Collective Action in the Salvadoran Civil War, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2011.
Lisa Widding Isaksen, Global Care Work: Gender and Migration in Nordic Societies, Nordic Academic Press, 2011.
Jamila Vidas, Die Migration und Integration der Mexikaner in den USA: Soziokulturelle und politische Einflüsse der Chicanos auf die US-amerikanische Gesellschaft, GRIN Verlag, 2011.

Call for chapters for an edited book “Internal Migrations. Perspectives from Five Continents”

Deadline for abstract submission: July 10, 2011 , Deadline for final papers: September 10, 2011

An edited volume on internal migrations in the most populated countries is currently being created as a joint initiative of young scholars from the Swiss Universities (Bern University and the University of Geneva) and many european academic institutions, and will be published next year.

Each chapter will be focused on in-depth characteristics of internal migration in one country:

Themes (Table of Contents): General Characteristics of Internal Migrations in:

1. North America: United States, Mexico
2. South America: Brasilia, Argentina, Peru
3. Europe: United Kingdom, Spain, Russia, Ukraine
4. Asia: China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Japan, Vietnam, Philippines
5. Africa: Nigeria, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa
6. Australia and Oceania: Australia

Proposals should include:
• A 500-750 word abstract
• A brief curriculum vitae (1 page)

Prospective contributors are invited to submit their initial proposals (500-750) to the editors by July 10, 2011. The invited essays (5000-7000 words) are to be submitted by September 30, 2011.

The language of the proposed publication is English. Please also feel welcome to circulate this call for papers to colleagues who may be interested in contributing a paper.

For more informations: jean.valluy@gmail.com

Did anyone hear something about new book by Polish scientist Bogumil Terminski (well known author in international law) about Development Induced Displaced People.

I am looking for his book but I don`t know how to get it.

With regards,

M.A. Rodríguez-Bortelo
( m.j.bortelo69@yahoo.ar)

 

Good day!

My contribution is about forced migrants and their development contribution in their countries of origin with a special focus on Algeria.

Who are forced migrants?

Actually, forced migrants are refugees, asylum-seekers, internally displaced people, and returnees. Additional to the causes cited in the text “Forced immigration and development”, their internal or international displacement is due a sense of misery and lack of freedom. Forced migrants do not leave their regions or countries voluntarily, but because they have to.

Forced migrants’ contribution to development

Can you share any examples of how forced migrants use their skills and capacities to contribute to development and post-conflict reconstruction?

Many Algerians live abroad with a large number in France. This community which left Algeria for socio-economic and political reasons is still connected to its origins and its country. Despite the difficulty and distress they certainly suffered, the immigrants always contribute to the development of their country of origin through humanitarian aid or investments.

What are the necessary conditions for forced migrants to contribute to the development of their host states/regions/communities as well as those of origin?

However, in order to allow them to be economic actors and agents of development, a strategy has to be set up which supports forced migrants’ contribution to the development of their countries of origin.

In the Algerian context, first of all it is necessary to renew the dialogue between the Algerian disapora abroad, the civil society, and the government. The dialogue between all parties will create a spirit of communication and trust, two essential elements that facilitate the implementation of the project and its realization.

To allow migrants to become more involved in the migration and development project, it is important, in my view, to conduct campaigns to raise awareness, to form the Algerian community abroad, and also to strengthen the capacity of local actors.

Furthermore, it should be noted that in terms of the realization of the project, including the administrative level, the process is generally slow. Especially when it comes to authorization, the experience shows that in order to implement the project, the approval and support of the Algerian national and local authorities is essential. Once permission is granted, the initiators of the project sign a partnership agreement with the ministerial department(s) concerned.

The success of the project requires also the support of local networks as working in partnership with the government will not only allow the official involvement of public authorities in the project, but also the flexibility of labor.

The overall success of the project is not only based on its relevance, feasibility and financing, but also on the involvement of all parties concerned (migrants, local authorities, the civil society, and the target population).

Finally, the active participation of migrants in the development of their host country or countries of origin deserves recognition and support. And I also think that forced migrants who find themselves abroad and who have the opportunity to make positive changes, should make efforts to be ‘good’ migrants worthy of its person, primarily because a migrant is somehow the ‘representative’ of his or her country of origin. As an element of the society where he or she resides, he or she is supposed to be a good example.