Call for Civil Society actors to share their experience in supporting City Leadership in Managing Migration For Development

English

The consolidated reply has been integrated in the Report of the Global Civil Society Consultation (ENFRES)

Please note that the e-discussion has now been closed. The consolidated reply of this e-discussion has been integrated into a report prepared based on the results of the e-discussion in addition to two consolidation processes, which is accessible here. The first consolidation process took place in New York on 19th July, 2019 and was led by the Global Consortium on Migration together with the JMDI, UNITAR and support and funding from KNOMAD of the World Bank. This meeting saw the participation of around 40 civil society actors and international organisations active in the migration and development field. This event also served to launch the second round of consultations- thonline global consultation, or e-discussion, hosted by the JMDI via this platform. It was live from 26th July until 16th September 2016 where a further 17 civil society actors across the globe also shared their insight and good practices. Finally, a third event was held in Quezon City, Philippines on 13 September 2016 with 22 participants from 11 Philippine-based civil society organizations including trade union and migrant families’ group. This was conducted by the Migrant Forum in Asia and JMDI in partnership with the University of the Philippines.

 

Introduction

The Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI), together with the Global Coalition on Migration, KNOMAD of the World Bank and UNITAR, launched this global online consultation on the Role of Civil Society in supporting City Leadership in Implementing Migration Policies. Building on the Civil Society Consultation session that took place on 19th July 2016 in New York, this consultation served to bring the voices and experiences of civil society to the upcoming Third Global Mayoral Forum on Mobility, Migration and Development to be hosted by Quezon City, Philippines from 29-30th September, 2016.

The Annual Mayoral Fora on Mobility, Migration and Development brings together mayors, city leaders and other local and regional authorities to foster knowledge, share good practices and strategise on how to work collectively to harness the potential of migration for local development. Civil society actors are key partners that work together with cities to achieve this, acting across the entire spectrum of migration governance from service provision to ensuring social inclusion. Indeed, JMDI experience showed that development can be fostered most effectively when local authorities, civil society and migrants and the community itself work together to achieve a common purpose. This consultation served to highlight the long-standing experience of civil society in supporting cities and will enrich the knowledge and dialogue of the Mayoral Forum.

Context

Migration is mainly an urban phenomenon. While more than half of the world’s population already live in urban areas, projections show that there might be an additional 2.5 billion urban residents by 2050. Furthermore, some 60% of the total 14.4 million refugees, and 80% of the 38 million internally displaced persons are thought to live in urban areas. Indeed, in a global context of increasing decentralization, urbanization and human mobility, the recent migration and refugee crisis and current political agendas, migration matters have never been so important or reconciled so closely with development at the local level. This can be reflected by the fact that the Habitat III process for sustainable urban development has already recognized how ‘inclusive planning for rapid urbanization, migration and displacement – through improved rights and protection for migrants and refugees, access to adequate services, opportunities and space and regulation that create an enabling environment – can maximize the skills, resources and creativity of migrants and refugees that drive sustainable development”. Indeed, de facto or de jure, local and regional authorities and Civil Society are at the forefront of managing migration as first responders to service provision and ensuring social cohesion at the local level.

Yet while many cities and their supporting networks of civil society are thriving in this role and showing innovative ways to foster development and growth, others may lack the political will, capacities, support, competencies and fiscal or human resources to do so. And, while dialogue, policies and praxis continue to be debated and managed at the national and international levels, leaving no seat at the table for local actors, the full potential of cities and civil society to take up this is hindered.

It is within this context that the JMDI, KNOMAD of the World Bank, UNITAR, IOM, the Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation, and the United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) have been the driving forces behind the Annual Mayoral Forum on Mobility, Migration and Development. This platform therefore provides a space for local actors to mutually learn and support each other as they take on the challenges and opportunities that migration brings for the benefit of their entire communities. Moreover, the Forum serves to give strength to and promote the voice and role of local actors in managing migration for development within key international dialogues such as the Global Forum on Migration and Development.

Building on the outcomes of the first two Mayoral Fora, the Third Mayoral Forum on Mobility, Migration and Development focused on two thematic areas: 1. the role of diaspora in furthering development in communities of origin and destination; and the inclusion and protection of migrants and refugees in vulnerable situations within urban centres. For further information, please consult the dedicated page here.

Together with the Global Coalition on Migration, the Forum partners encouraged all civil society actors to share their expertise and contribute to these efforts by responding to all or any pertinent questions outlined below.

 

Proposed Questions for discussion

  • 1. How can civil society support cities to ensure the inclusion and the protection of vulnerable migrants and refugees for enhanced resilience and development? What good practices and lessons learned exist?

  • 2. What is the role of civil society in supporting local and regional authorities to reach out and engage with diaspora? For example, in order to foster their support in integration, social protection, promoting labour rights and fostering knowledge transfer, entrepreneurship and investment for local development? Please provide examples.

  • 3. How can civil society and cities work together to combat xenophobia, violence and ensure social cohesion?  What good practices and lessons learned exist? Please provide examples.

  • 4. Both cities and civil society actors tend to be side-lined from national and international policy- making pertaining to migration and refugee protection, despite the fact that such policies often have an impact at the local level. This can be due to a lack of support, voice and consultation at national level, as well as a lack competencies, means and/or political will. What obstacles to collaboration have you encountered through your work? How can cities and civil society work together to overcome these? Please provide examples.

  • 5. What are the key success factors to ensuring a trusting and functional multi-stakeholder partnership among civil society actors and cities in their efforts to work together to harness the development potential of migration?  What obstacles can hinder such partnerships? How can these be overcome? Please provide examples.

  • 6. These past few years, we have numerous incidences of countries experiencing conflict or natural disasters where migrants living, working, studying, traveling or transiting in these countries have been disproportionately affected.  What is the role of civil society in preparing for and responding to the needs of migrants in countries experiencing crises? Give examples of how civil society helped in saving lives, protecting migrants’ rights and dignity and alleviating their suffering especially at the height of these crises.

Thank you and please do not hesitate to share and encourage your colleagues, contacts and networks to also contribute.

Antonio García-Nieto

Región de Murcia (España)

1.       ¿Cómo puede la sociedad civil brindar apoyo a las ciudades para asegurar la inclusión y la protección de los migrantes y refugiados vulnerables, así como fomentar la resiliencia y el desarrollo? ¿Qué buenas prácticas y aprendizajes pueden ser identificados?

Las Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil (OSC) pueden prestar un importante apoyo a las ciudades en la inclusión de migrantes y refugiados. En primer lugar es conveniente que por la Corporación Municipal se elabore un documento de estrategia con la participación de las organizaciones que lo deseen. En este documento se definen los ejes prioritarios y las actuaciones. En los ejes deben contemplarse entre otros: acogida, alojamiento, escolarización, formación profesional, empleo, salud, participación comunitaria, igualdad, juventud… Dentro de estos ejes, hay que contemplar actuaciones concretas. De estas actuaciones bastantes pueden ser realizadas conjuntamente por la municipalidad y las OSC sobre todo aquéllas que tienen un trato más personalizado con migrantes y refugiados.

La acogida es la primera actuación se puede ofrecer alojamiento y alimentación, pero no menos importante es el apoyo humano así como la orientación y el acompañamiento en momentos de incertidumbre.

Las OCS pueden realizar en una gran labor en la integración de migrantes y refugiados en la vida comunitaria de los barrios. Llegan con mayor facilidad a los colectivos vecinales y pueden hacer tareas de mediación, así como impulsar la interrelación de la población asentada y la población recién llegada estableciendo mesas de debate y organizando actividades culturales, deportivas y comunitarias con la participación de todos los colectivos.

Otros aspectos donde las OCS tienen una gran ventaja son los referidos a la educación no formal, como el aprendizaje del idioma, alfabetización de adultos, introducción a la historia y cultura local, hábitos saludables, etc.

Las actividades con la juventud, y con la infancia en periodo extraescolar, son muy importantes para la integración pero a la vez muy delicadas. Integrar a la juventud es uno de los aspectos básicos para la cohesión social y en ello las OSC tienen ventaja para introducirse en el entorno de los jóvenes migrantes y atraerlos a que compartan sus problemas con los jóvenes locales, con el fin de realizar actividades conjuntas e ilusionarlos en su nueva vida. Cuando los jóvenes de diversas procedencias dialogan comprenden que sus problemas son muy parecidos.

En la búsqueda activa de empleo y la formación ocupacional las OSC tienen una mayor flexibilidad para aconsejar itinerarios profesionales, propiciar en los migrantes una búsqueda activa de empleo y establecer programas formativos de acuerdo con las habilidades y capacidades de cada persona.

Todas esas actividades tienen una mayor efectividad si se realizan en el marco de un plan o de una estrategia que defina las actuaciones y establezca una coordinación entre la sociedad civil y las autoridades locales y regionales.

Para involucrar con mayor intensidad a la sociedad civil es conveniente que participen personas voluntarias en la preparación y el desarrollo de las actividades. De esta manera en la actividad no se implica sólo el personal de una asociación, sino que trasciende a un número más amplio de personas.

 

2.       ¿Cómo puede la sociedad civil apoyar a las autoridades locales y regionales para involucrar a la diáspora en el fomento de la integración, la protección social, la promoción de los derechos laborales y la transmisión de conocimiento, así como en el apoyo a los emprendedores y en la inversión para el desarrollo local? Por favor, incluya algunos ejemplos. 

Contestada en las preguntas 1 y 5.

 

3.       ¿Cómo pueden la sociedad civil y las ciudades trabajar conjuntamente para combatir la xenofobia y la violencia y asegurar la cohesión social? ¿Cuáles son las buenas prácticas y aprendizajes ya existentes? Por favor, aporte algunos ejemplos. 

En primer lugar tiene existir concienciación y compromiso de los responsable políticos locales y regionales para combatir la xenofobia. En ocasiones son los propios políticos los que lanzan mensajes, que aunque sea sin intención, pueden contribuir aumentar la xenofobia. El compromiso y la implicación de los todos los departamentos de una administración es fundamental para evitar comportamientos xenófobos.

Las administraciones deben ofrecer informaciones verídicas acerca de la migración para dar herramientas a la sociedad civil que permitan contrarrestar los rumores exagerados, así como informaciones falsas y mal intencionadas sobre las personas migrantes (estrategia anti-rumores).

La sociedad civil puede colaborar con las ciudades combatiendo la xenofobia participando en actividades como se ha mencionado en el punto 1, pero además hay otros muchos aspectos  de la vida cotidiana donde la sociedad civil puede mantener una actitud positiva de cara a la migración, como el trato respetuoso y favorecer la presencia de migrantes en espacios y centros públicos.

4.       Tanto las ciudades como la sociedad civil suelen quedar apartadas de las decisiones políticas tomadas a nivel nacional e internacional en relación a la protección de los migrantes y refugiados, aunque estas tengan normalmente un impacto en el ámbito local. Esto puede deberse a una falta de apoyo por parte de las instancias nacionales, que se traduce en un déficit de consulta y escucha de las voces locales. También puede ser el fruto de una falta de competencias y recursos o de interés político. ¿Con qué obstáculos se ha encontrado para establecer una colaboración? ¿Cómo pueden las ciudades y la sociedad civil trabajar conjuntamente para superarlos? Por favor, no dude en incluir algunos ejemplos.  

En España ha habido una colaboración bastante estrecha entre autoridades nacionales, regionales y locales y también con ONG mediante foros y consejos participativos sobre los asuntos de migración. En el ámbito estatal existe el Foro para la Integración Social de los Inmigrantes donde participan representantes de la administración estatal, administración autonómica, administración local, asociaciones de migrantes, organizaciones no gubernamentales y organizaciones empresariales y sindicales. Las regiones y muchos municipios tienen órganos similares de participación y debate.

Por otro lado se puede participar, a través de internet, en las consultas públicas que lanzan instituciones internacionales (por ejemplo la UE) o participando en los buzones de sugerencias.

5.       ¿Cuáles son los factores clave que permiten establecer una colaboración entre múltiples actores, provenientes de la sociedad civil y del gobierno de las ciudades, basada en la confianza y que contribuya adecuadamente al potencial de la migración para el desarrollo? ¿Qué obstáculos pueden darse? ¿Cómo pueden ser superados? Por favor, incluya algunos ejemplos.

Diversos informes han puesto de manifiesto la contribución de la población migrante al desarrollo de la sociedad de acogida. En algunos de estos informes se ha señalado incluso que su aportación ha sido mayor a las prestaciones que han recibido. Ello muestra el gran potencial de la población migrante para impulsar el desarrollo local. La población migrante ha puesto en marcha comercios de productos generales y de productos específicos de sus países, que además fomentan la interculturalidad Lo mismo acurre con los establecimientos de hostelería y otros negocios de diversa índole, como servicios profesionales, talleres y pequeñas empresas. La clientela no sólo es la población migrante sino también la población autóctona produciéndose una relación intercultural entre empresarios y clientes.

En el fomento de los pequeños negocios emprendidos por personas migrantes en el país de llegada, las Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil pueden desempeñar un gran papel colaborando con los gobiernos de las ciudades y de las regiones, dado que las personas migrantes necesitan, en este aspecto, una atención personalizada, muchas veces tienen miedo y falta de confianza personal para emprender, además, pueden tener dificultades para desenvolverse en el entramado administrativo o no entienden a los funcionarios, y en la mayoría de los casos tienen muchas dudas sobre cómo emprender el negocio. Uno de los aspectos es el asesoramiento a los emprendedores migrantes para la tramitación administrativa: alta como empresario, permisos de la municipalidad, permisos de los departamentos de los distintos ministerios, tasas e impuestos, seguridad social… Otro tipo de asesoramiento es sobre la puesta en marcha de la idea empresarial del migrante. No se trata de los cursos clásicos sobre emprendedores, sino de formación personalizada ad-hoc para el desarrollo de la idea empresarial analizando con el emprendedor los pros y los contras en cada componente empresarial (tipo de negocio, marketing, financiación…) para elaborar un proyecto empresarial. Una vez elaborado el proyecto empresarial es preciso realizar una labor de seguimiento y acompañamiento durante la fase inicial de la nueva empresa, para asesorar y ayudar en los primeros pasos. Aunque las administraciones dispongan de departamento de asesoramiento a emprendedores, las OSC son más adecuadas para realizar estas tareas por facilidad de acercamiento al migrante y por disponibilidad de horarios (por la tarde o noche) entre otros. Ahora bien el respaldo de la administración siempre proporciona una sensación de seguridad al migrante.

Otro punto es la contribución de las personas migrantes al desarrollo de sus países de origen. Esta contribución puede ser de varios tipos: envío de remesas, puesta en marcha de actividades productivas bien directamente o a través de familiares o socios, intermediación en negocios, actividades comerciales, adquisición de habilidades e iniciativas sociales y culturales. Es esta tarea las OCS y las administraciones locales y regionales deben de actuar conjuntamente. En estas actuaciones es recomendable que exista un socio o un contacto en el país de destino. Es muy recomendable la coordinación con las administraciones y OSC de los países de destino para solicitar información acerca de tramitación, legislación y ayudas con el fin de poder informar a los migrantes sobre los requerimientos en los países de destino y, posteriormente, enviar el proyecto de la persona migrante con el propósito de que tenga un acompañamiento y seguimiento.

Las Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil pueden colaborar con las ciudades y regiones para animar y asesorar a los migrantes para emprender actividades en sus países. Además, pueden colaborar las asociaciones de inmigrantes. En estas actividades de migración y desarrollo es interesante que las OSC conozcan directamente a las personas migrantes, ya que en estos casos es primordial la iniciativa personal. El migrante con su familia, es el que decide realizar una actividad productiva y dedicar su capital y su tiempo. Las OCS pueden asesorar de forma personalizada a los migrantes en la elaboración del proyecto empresarial, y ponerlos en contacto con entidades de los países de origen para que realicen el acompañamiento y seguimiento in situ.

Por otro lado se pueden promover con el apoyo de las asociaciones de migrantes actividades colectivas como fomento de cooperativas u otras de tipo social o cultural.

 

6.       En los últimos años, los migrantes viviendo, trabajando, estudiando, viajando o transitando por países que estaban experimentando un conflicto o un desastre natural, se han visto afectados de manera desproporcionada. ¿Cuál es el papel de la sociedad civil ante esta situación y cómo puede responder a las necesidades de los migrantes en países en crisis? Por favor, aporte ejemplos de cómo la sociedad civil ha contribuido a salvar vidas, proteger la dignidad y los derechos de los migrantes o aliviar su sufrimiento, especialmente en el apogeo de estas crisis.   

La sociedad civil dependiendo de la relación que tenga con los refugiados puede hacer diversas tareas. En primer lugar, una labor de concienciación del drama de los refugiados. Muchas veces los medios de comunicación los presentan como invasores y como una amenaza, cuando son personas y familias que han tenido que abandonar sus hogares al ver sus vidas amenazadas por un conflicto bélico. Contrarrestar los mensajes negativos acerca de los refugiados y migrantes es esencial. En segundo lugar, contribuir con ayuda económica a través de las organizaciones internacionales que están trabajando con los refugiados. En las regiones donde han llegado refugiados colaborar en facilitar alojamiento y su integración en la sociedad mediante, cursos de idiomas, atención a la infancia y a los más necesitados, actividades con jóvenes, programas de formación ocupacional y búsqueda de empleo….. En suma actividades para que las personas refugiadas superen el drama y rehagan una vida lo más normalizada posible.

 

This contribution was provided by Nilambar Badal, Mayor of Katmandu: 

·         1. How can civil society support cities to ensure the inclusion and the protection of vulnerable migrants and refugees for enhanced resilience and development? What good practices and lessons learned exist?

The migrants and their families are the major actors of the local development. The government has its policy and rules for the reintegration of the migrants and their families. The civil society has the scope of reaching from the national to the household level. In this context the civil society can play the role of the bridge between the government and the migrant households. The civil society has been playing crucial role in empowering the migrants and their families to participate in the policy and development planning from the national to local levels. If we look into the JMDI – HOST project context the implementing partner Asian Forum played the role in ensuring the participation of the returnee migrants in the local development planning at the local level (District Development Committee Office and Municipalities) while Asian Forum coordinated with the government at central level (Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development and Ministry of Labour and Employment) to ensure the participation. Through this effort the district level planning process recognized the project and contributed in the development at the project sites consequently protecting the migrants and their families.

Apart from the participation on the policy and development civil society can play the role of the monitoring agency in the implementation of the protection laws (migrant workers) and can also facilitate in the redress of the migrants and their families at various levels. Civil Society can also press the cities to form the mechanism to protect the migrants and their families starting from the recording of the migrant household for which in the context of Nepal the provision has been made in the national law.

·         2. What is the role of civil society in supporting local and regional authorities to reach out and engage with Diaspora? For example, in order to foster their support in integration, social protection, promoting labour rights and fostering knowledge transfer, entrepreneurship and investment for local development? Please provide examples.

As mentioned above the civil society has the bases on the various levels including the destination countries. The civil society can bridge between the Diaspora communities and the Local/Regional authorities. In one of the JMDI implemented sites at Tanahun district of Nepal the local youths came together to develop the homestay village. For which the civil society encouraged the youths to use the social media to call the Diaspora and migrant from the village to contribute in the construction of the stair ways in the village and were able to collect some fund. The local authorities (Municipality) were informed about it and the municipality contributed on its part.

The local authorities should facilitate the returning migrants and the families in creating the environment for investment by providing the security and statutory formalities. The local authorities can prioritize the investment sector and provide counseling for the investment. The local authorities can also facilitate the migrants and their families in increasing access to  the facilities and services of the private sectors (Bank and other financial institutions).

·         3. How can civil society and cities work together to combat xenophobia, violence and ensure social cohesion?  What good practices and lessons learned exist? Please provide examples.

The civil society in coordination with the cities can organize the cultural exchanges and platforms for sharing and discussion inviting the host and the guest communities together. The sharing and discussions can obviously have the influence on both the communities and would provide the opportunity to know better about each other and thus reduce the confrontation and xenophobic perception.

Violence is the outcome of non acceptance. The civil society together with the cities can bring together the people from different arts of life from different orientations to create social harmony. The social and economic contributions of the guest community need to be informed to the host communities and make them aware about their contributions. Likewise the host communities should be well appreciated for the social and economic spaces provided to the guest communities.

·         4. Both cities and civil society actors tend to be side-lined from national and international policy- making pertaining to migration and refugee protection, despite the fact that such policies often have an impact at the local level. This can be due to a lack of support, voice and consultation at national level, as well as a lack competencies, means and/or political will. What obstacles to collaboration have you encountered through your work? How can cities and civil society work together to overcome these? Please provide examples.

The major obstacle in collaboration was the frequent changes in the local authorities' position in the context of Nepal. The governments officials are transferred or promoted to the higher position and the civil society have to orient the new incumbent in the same position again. For instance, in the past two years the position of Local Development Officer of Tanahun and Kaski district received four individuals and three individuals respectively resulting to the effort in orienting and informing the new official about the project and the initiatives. The institutional memory of the local authorities are not adequately recorded consequently the risk of leaving the plans and programs of the preceding official unattended by the incumbent official is high.

·         5. What are the key success factors to ensuring a trusting and functional multi-stakeholder partnership among civil society actors and cities in their efforts to work together to harness the development potential of migration?  What obstacles can hinder such partnerships? How can these be overcome? Please provide examples.

Transparency, involvement and ownership with accountability are the key success factors to ensuring the trusting and functional partnership among different stakeholders. The more the partners come together to discuss on the issues the more they build the trust and the partnership functions best in the trust environment. In the context of Nepal, Government, civil societies and private sectors had a negative perception towards each other, though least confronting in comparison to the other countries. But in both the project sites of the JMDI – HOST project the different stakeholders were continuously coordinated through different engagement and dialogues starting from the planning of the project. The general perception can only be changed through the action. There are cases of mistrust among the different stakeholders and the implementation of the project goes to uncertainty.

Migrants and their families are often reluctant to participate in the planning and development processes as they have the preconceived idea of being inferior to the government, private sector and civil society leaders in the context of Nepal. The most important stakeholder, migrant and their families, grow dependency on the civil society and refrain from the responsibility resulting to the distance with the other stakeholders. Therefore the migrants and their families were participated in all the planning and implementation phases of the JMDI – HOST project.

The projects are temporary in nature and the great question is of the plan for sustainability. The stakeholders are always concerned about the responsibility to be shouldered after the completion of the project period. Often the local authorities are concerned about the resources to carry on with the projects for sustainability as they have to depend upon the central level for the resource allocation. The coordination with the local authorities should go parallel with the central (national) authorities for the smooth implementation and continuation of the project.

·         6. These past few years, we have numerous incidences of countries experiencing conflict or natural disasters where migrants living, working, studying, traveling or transiting in these countries have been disproportionately affected.  What is the role of civil society in preparing for and responding to the needs of migrants in countries experiencing crises? Give examples of how civil society helped in saving lives, protecting migrants’ rights and dignity and alleviating their suffering especially at the height of these crises.

The civil societies have least formalities to furnish for even the cross border collaboration in comparison to the government and private sectors. In this context, the first response to the migrant in distress in the countries in crisis can be initiated by the civil societies at both the countries (origin, transit and destination). When the Libya Crisis left the Nepalese Migrant workers in distressed situation the civil society called for help to the other civil societies at the  destination to collect information on the whereabouts and the information was crucial for the government and the private sectors to rescue them out of Libya.

Civil Societies are working at the ground to create awareness on the rescue and relief at the conflict and natural disaster situation at the destination in coordination with the government. The migrants at the destinations specially those who are in undocumented and irregular situations are more vulnerable and are often out of the reach of the governments of both the host and the origin. In this situation the civil society can bring them together to the redress mechanism. 

This contribution was provided by Catherine de Meyer, SAMPA

1.       Comment la société civile peut-elle soutenir les villes pour assurer l’inclusion et la protection des migrants et refugiés vulnérables afin de renforcer leur résilience et favoriser le développement ? Quelles bonnes pratiques et leçons apprises peuvent être identifiées ?

Faire une analyse des besoins des primo-arrivants. Voir les structures existantes sur chaque commune. Voir s’il ne faudrait pas les renforcer afin d’offrir un accueil global à ces personnes que ce soit d’un point de vue social, psychologique ou en langue. Au lieu de constituer de nouvelles structures, il serait plus intéressant de travailler avec les associations existantes déjà dans le domaine et les faire travailler ensemble de manière transversale.

Il faut dépasser les visions politiciennes, populistes et électoralistes pour se centrer sur les vrais problèmes et besoins du public.

Pendant des années le SAMPA a offert un accueil global aux personnes primo-arrivantes en leurs proposants différents services : un suivi sociojuridique, un suivi psychologique, un suivi en insertion socioprofessionnelle et des cours de langue et de citoyenneté. Bien sûr, toujours en s’appuyant sur un réseau de partenaires compétents dans d’autres domaines notamment Solidarité savoir qui propose un service social généraliste, des activités culturelles, des ateliers informatique et d’entreprenariat pour les femmes.

2.       Quel est le rôle de la société civile dans son soutien aux autorités locales et régionales pour atteindre et engager le dialogue avec la diaspora ? Par exemple, afin d’encourager leurs soutiens à l’intégration, la protection sociale, la promotion des droits du travail, le transfert de connaissance, l’entrepreneuriat et l’investissement dans le développement local. Merci de fournir des exemples.

Le rôle de la société civile est d’avant tout soutenir la population avant de soutenir les autorités. L’associatif peut favoriser un travail communautaire pour faire émerger et remonter les problèmes existant dans les quartiers. Le milieu associatif fait le lien entre les diasporas et les communes. Ex : académies de quartier, les comités de quartier, le travail communautaire,…

3.       Comment la Société Civile et les Villes peuvent-elles travailler ensemble pour combattre la xénophobie et la violence afin de garantir la cohésion sociale ? Quelles bonnes pratiques et leçons apprises peuvent-être identifiées ? Merci de fournir des exemples.

Avant de parler de travailler ensemble, il faut que les autorités mettent les moyens nécessaires et garantissent les besoins fondamentaux des personnes (logement, santé, aide sociale, éducation, emploi, formation,…). D’un autre côté, il faut une « professionnalisation » des associations et renforcer leur accompagnement surtout auprès de petites associations auto-constituées qui peuvent être motivées à aider leurs semblables dans un but de solidarité sans avoir nécessairement déjà toutes les compétences.

4.   Les villes et les acteurs de la société civile ont tendance à être mis l’écart lors de l’élaboration des politiques nationales et internationales relatives à la migration et à la protection des réfugiés, malgré le fait que ces politiques ont souvent un impact à l’échelle locale. Cela peut être dû à un manque de soutien, d’influence et de consultation à l’échelle nationale, ainsi qu’à un manque de compétences, de moyens et/ou de volonté politique. Quels obstacles à cette collaboration avez-vous rencontrés au travers de votre travail ? Comment les Villes et la Société Civile peuvent-elles travailler ensemble pour dépasser cette situation ? 

Il faut écouter le milieu associatif. Ce qui est rarement le cas. Prenons l’exemple des Parcours d’accueil à Bruxelles. Les pouvoirs publics ont rencontré le milieu associatif. Il y a eu des réunions, beaucoup de réunions mais le milieu associatif n’a pas été réellement entendu et le décret n’a pas tenu compte des remarques posées par la société civile. De ce fait, les bureaux d’accueil même si utiles correspondent plus à une vision politique qu’à une vision de terrain. Ce qui amène des difficultés pratiques et une complexification des démarches au niveau des publics et de la faisabilité de ces dernières.

De même avec les conseils consultatifs d’une manière générale et dans tous domaines. Très souvent ces groupes se réunissent à la demande des autorités publiques pour émettre un avis qui n’est pas toujours entendu. Ces organes bien qu’utiles et compétents dans leur domaine respectif n’ont que peu d’impact sur les décisions politiques.

4.       Quels sont les facteurs clefs de réussites nécessaires afin de garantir un partenariat multipartite effectif et de confiance entre les acteurs de la société civile et les villes dans leurs efforts visant à travailler ensemble pour exploiter le potentiel de la migration pour le développement ? Quels obstacles peuvent entraver ces partenariats ? Comment peuvent-ils être dépassés ? Merci de fournir des exemples.

Pour la Belgique, il serait intéressant de mettre les moyens et un cadre nécessaires à chaque association pour éviter les logiques de concurrence entre structures associatives qui se retrouvent souvent dans une logique de survie. De ce fait, il est difficile par exemple de renvoyer les usagers dans un autre service plus adapté par crainte de ne plus être subsidié s’il y a une baisse des usagers. Trop souvent, les autorités publiques sont dans une démarche quantitative plutôt que qualitative. Il est souvent demander d’atteindre des objectifs impossibles au vue de l’état actuel de la situation économique en Belgique notamment le fait que les personnes primo-arrivantes doivent trouver un emploi.

5.       Ces dernières années, de nombreux pays dans lesquels des migrants vivent, étudient, voyagent ou transitent ont été disproportionnellement affectés par des conflits ou des catastrophes naturelles. Quel est le rôle de la société civile dans la préparation et la réponse aux besoins des migrants vivant dans des pays en proies aux crises ? Merci de fournir des exemples sur la manière dont la société civile peut aider à sauver des vies, protéger la dignité et les droits des migrants et soulager leur souffrance particulièrement au plus fort de ces crises.

         S’il y a des crises, ce qui est moins le case en Belgique, il faut que la résolution puisse être prise en charge par la société civile mais doit être soutenue par les autorités publiques (par ex : Parc Maximilien). Il faut éviter le désinvestissement des autorités vers les associations, les bénévoles et le bon vouloir des citoyens sans réel soutien des autorités publique.  

This contribution was provided by Lahlou Kacimi, Forum Algérien pour la Citoyenneté et la Modernité 

Questions proposées pour la discussion 

1.      1.     Comment la société civile peut-elle soutenir les villes pour assurer l’inclusion et la protection des migrants et refugiés vulnérables afin de renforcer leur résilience et favoriser le développement ? Quelles bonnes pratiques et leçons apprises peuvent être identifiées ? 

Il est connu que la société civile, de par sa position privilégiée d’être entre les citoyens et les gouvernants et d’être un vecteur attitré pour transmettre les situations de terrain aux décideurs, a eu à jouer un rôle déterminant dans la facilitation de l’accueil des migrants et de leur prise en charge intermédiaire avant leur intégration progressive. Ce rôle s’illustre d’abord par une approche pédagogique des populations afin de prévenir et de remédier aux situations de rejet et de xénophobie. C’est ensuite une prise en charge matérielle par les propres moyens des associations ; c’est enfin l’entremise auprès des pouvoirs publics locaux pour régulariser définitivement la situation des immigrants au plan économique, social, médical et éducatif, par le biais d’un recensement systématique et de l’octroi d’un statut stable.

2.     2.     Quel est le rôle de la société civile dans son soutien aux autorités locales et régionales pour atteindre et engager le dialogue avec la diaspora ? Par exemple, afin d’encourager leurs soutiens à l’intégration, la protection sociale, la promotion des droits du travail, le transfert de connaissance, l’entrepreneuriat et l’investissement dans le développement local. Merci de fournir des exemples.

Les associations travaillent beaucoup à la recherche d’emplois, même précaires, au profit des migrants, notamment dans le domaine de la construction ; le même effort est entrepris auprès des particuliers pour des travaux domestiques (gardiennage, jardinage et autres tâches  de maison).

C’est déjà un moyen de dédramatiser leur condition et de les faire accepter par les populations, tout en leur faisant acquérir des compétences professionnelles (bâtiment) les rendant éligibles à des emplois stables. Parfois, de hautes compétences (médecins) sont intégrées dans les établissements publics de santé. Une loi réglemente l’emploi des étrangers et constitue une garantie pour assurer aux immigrants accédant un emploi leurs droits à la protection sociale. Toutefois, on n’en est pas encore, tant s’en faut, à l’accès à l’entrepreneuriat, qui nécessite que des phases préalables et intermédiaires d’intégration soient assurées.

3.    3.     Comment la Société Civile et les Villes peuvent-elles travailler ensemble pour combattre la xénophobie et la violence afin de garantir la cohésion sociale ? Quelles bonnes pratiques et leçons apprises peuvent-être identifiées ? Merci de fournir des exemples.

L’expérience algérienne a donné à constater que la société civile a déployé des trésors d’ingéniosité, en jouant sur les valeurs de solidarité et d’hospitalité traditionnelles, fibre très sensible des populations et fortement consacrées par la Constitution, les lois et les textes coraniques, pour sensibiliser les populations à l’accueil, à la tolérance et à l’amour du prochain, en proscrivant toute xénophobie et discrimination.

4.    4.     Les villes et les acteurs de la société civile ont tendance à être mis l’écart lors de l’élaboration des politiques nationales et internationales relatives à la migration et à la protection des réfugiés, malgré le fait que ces politiques ont souvent un impact à l’échelle locale. Cela peut être dû à un manque de soutien, d’influence et de consultation à l’échelle nationale, ainsi qu’à un manque de compétences, de moyens et/ou de volonté politique. Quels obstacles à cette collaboration avez-vous rencontrés au travers de votre travail ? Comment les Villes et la Société Civile peuvent-elles travailler ensemble pour dépasser cette situation ? 

Il est vrai que, dans un état historiquement jacobin, les collectivités locales ont peu de marge d’initiative et la société civile joue un rôle d’appendice.

Mais la donne est en voie de changement, car une loi est en préparation en Algérie, pour consacrer la citoyenneté participative et le discours officiel semble acquis à cette vision démocratique réelle. Dans ce très prochain cadre juridique et institutionnel innovant, les associations renforceront leur collaboration et leur coopération avec les collectivités locales pour élaborer et réaliser des programmes de prise en charge plus durable et plus efficace des migrants.

5.    5.     Quels sont les facteurs clefs de réussites nécessaires afin de garantir un partenariat multipartite effectif et de confiance entre les acteurs de la société civile et les villes dans leurs efforts visant à travailler ensemble pour exploiter le potentiel de la migration pour le développement ? Quels obstacles peuvent entraver ces partenariats ? Comment peuvent-ils être dépassés ? Merci de fournir des exemples.

Le facteur qui a fait le plus défaut est le cadre juridique adéquat, pour combler le hiatus entre la société civile et les villes. Au mieux, des rapports de confiance basés sur des relations personnelles ont suppléé à la bureaucratie des codes communal et de wilaya, dans des limites contraignantes. Avec la prochaine loi sur la participation citoyenne et la volonté politique d’ouverture affirmée avec force, conviction et insistance par le pouvoir central, le « travailler ensemble » aura un socle solide pour un engagement solidaire entre villes et société civile de prise en charge concertée et suivie de la politique d’intégration des migrants, outre que des moyens budgétaires seront mis en place à cet effet.

6.    6.     Ces dernières années, de nombreux pays dans lesquels des migrants vivent, étudient, voyagent ou transitent ont été disproportionnellement affectés par des conflits ou des catastrophes naturelles. Quel est le rôle de la société civile dans la préparation et la réponse aux besoins des migrants vivant dans des pays en proies aux crises ? Merci de fournir des exemples sur la manière dont la société civile peut aider à sauver des vies, protéger la dignité et les droits des migrants et soulager leur souffrance particulièrement au plus fort de ces crises.

En Algérie, la crise majeure demeure économique et le discours, aussi bien officiel qu’au sein des populations que des familles est à la prise de conscience

et les immigrants, tout comme les populations locales sont suffisamment informés des contraintes induites par cette crise et des mesures de rigueur entreprises. C’est dans ce cadre que sont désormais conçues et mises en œuvre les mesures d’accueil et d’insertion des immigrants et la société civile jouera son rôle d’explication et de sensibilisation dans cette conjoncture particulière, pour prévenir toute méprise et incompréhension.        

This contribution was provided by Thom Lissouere, Président de l'association Ensemble C'est Po6ble Nantes

Appel aux Acteurs de la Société Civile pour partager leurs expériences en matière de soutien au Leadership des Villes pour la mise en oeuvre de Politiques de Migration pour le Développement

Partagez votre histoire !
Présentez votre initiative et votre travail pour aider une autorité locale et régionale à mieux gérer la migration pour le développement locale en remplissant cette matrice et en la renvoyant à jmdi.pmu@undp.org avant le 16 Septembre 2016. Nous espérons utiliser vos témoignages dans l’élaboration de notre document final officiel, qui sera présenté lors du Forum des Maires.

1. Titre et type d’organisation
Association de Solidarité Internationale créée en 2012 à Nantes(France), Ensemble C'est Po6ble(ECP), intervient principalement au Congo Brazzaville dans les domaines de l'éducation, l'insertion par l'activité économique et la santé.
Depuis 2015, elle est inscrite dans le partenariat des organisations de solidarité internationale issues des migrations, label du Ministère Français des Affaires Etrangères.

2. Site internet
(https://www.facebook.com/Ensemble-Cest-Po6ble-524724291045658)

3. Pays et région/territoire
Ensemble C’est Po6ble est une association loi 1901 localisée en Région Pays de la Loire. Ces actions de solidarité internationale sont actuellement concentrées sur le territoire du plateau Koukouya, Département des plateaux, République du Congo.

4. Principales dynamiques de migration et de développement
L’association est formée en majorité d’une diaspora ressortissante du département des plateaux.
Dans le but d’apporter notre contribution à la revitalisation du plateau Koukouya aujourd’hui confronté à un exode rural sans précédent, l’association a conduit en 2015 un diagnostic visant à analyser les dynamiques d’acteurs sur lesquels il était possible de s’appuyer pour redynamiser la paysannerie.
Ce travail a permis de faire le constat d’un territoire marqué par la faiblesse de ses institutions décentralisées.
En effet, le plateau Koukouya encore appelé District de Lékana est rattaché au Conseil Départemental des Plateaux lui-même dépendant entièrement du pouvoir central (Un milliard de Franc CFA alloués au titre de subvention annuelle pour chaque département sans pour autant que les plans locaux de développement soient pris en compte)
La petite commune rurale de Lékana n’est non plus autonome, son Maire est nommé par l’administration centrale à la place d’un maire élu par le conseil municipal.
Devant cette complexité institutionnelle , notre contribution a été de construire une capacité de participation locale en s’appuyant sur le dispositif de création et de développement des comités de gestion et de développement communautaire (CGDC) définit par le décret n° 2013-280 du 25 Juin 2013 en République du Congo.
Ceci devra ainsi permettre de mieux mettre en oeuvre la stratégie de développement retenu dans le cadre de ce diagnostic. Une stratégie qui consistait à donner priorité à la consolidation et la dynamisation des initiatives économiques qui, en impactant sur le développement économique durable de la communauté, avaient un ancrage culturel. Des activités pratiquées depuis des générations par les populations et qui ont su s’adapter aux évolutions actuelles.
Les acteurs mobilisés n’étaient pas seulement ceux habitant la localité, l’étude s’était étendu aux organisations urbaines formées dans la logique territoriale notamment la mutuelle des ressortissants de Tsekampika(Lékana) crée depuis 1990 à Brazzaville, les ressortissants vivant à Brazzaville qui tenaient un champ, un cheptel ou un petit commerce à Lékana. Tous ces acteurs, désirant prendre part à la vitalité économique, sociale et culturelle du territoire, devaient trouver par ce dispositif un partenaire local indispensable.

8. Principaux objectifs de votre organisation en lien avec la migration et le développement
 Construire la capacité de participation des acteurs pour mieux accompagner le développement des activités stratégiques observées.
 Développer le faire vivre Tsékampika, un mouvement lancé par les habitants du village Tsékampika (Lékana) pour sensibiliser leurs ressortissants sur l’urgence de préserver ce que nous avons de commun c’est-à-dire, nos terres de culture et de souvenirs.

9. Principales activités liées à la migration et au développement
 Création d’une instance de participation et de promotion du développement local placé sous l’autorité du Maire de la commune rurale dont le proviseur du lycée agricole assure la fonction opérationnelle en collaboration avec les autres membres du comité. Ce comité de gestion mis en place, assurera la conception, la mise en oeuvre et la coordination des actions de développement. Il jouera à la longue, le rôle de « guichet unique » c'est -à -dire, un lieu unique d'information, d'orientation et de coordination des actions de développement. Autrement dit, si hier, les projets étaient qualifiés de « projets hélicoptères »du fait qu’ils atterrissaient sur tout type de terrain, ce noyau local de développement, aménagera le « terrain d’atterrissage » des projets à venir.
Ainsi, l’étranger motivateur ne viendra plus pour initier, mais participer à l’amplification de la motivation.
 Des journées de salubrité et d’entretien des vergers dans les bosquets abandonnés sont régulièrement organisées par le comité à lékana , mobilisant population locale et migrants.

10. Principaux produits et réalisations
En cherchant à mettre en place ce cadre de référence, nous avons réussi à construire une compétence collective locale autour de Monsieur le Maire. Il s’agit de valoriser l’expertise locale qui est souvent étouffée par la présence de la figure de l’étranger.

11. Principaux obstacles
Depuis la rupture démocratique de 1997, le Congo traverse un climat politique très instable caractérisé par une véritable mascarade de ses institutions démocratiques. Toutes les initiatives sont contrôlées par le pouvoir de Brazzaville .Les autorités de l’administration décentralisée sont simplement nommées par le centre, ce qui limite leur champ de liberté.
De l’autre côté, les initiatives de la diaspora sont souvent vu de projet politique, alimentant ainsi la méfiance chez ces autorités et la population partisane.
Plusieurs acteurs locaux pourtant indispensables ont refusé d’assister aux consultations par ce que n’ayant pas reçu le feu vert de l’autorité référent. Mettre ensemble des acteurs pour parler réellement développement dans un climat fait de mélange, signifie qu’il faudra avant tout accompagner le développement mental.

12. Facteurs-clés de succès
(Veuillez mettre en lumière brièvement tout facteur de succès que vous auriez identifié ayant contribué à la réalisation de vos objectifs)
La situation d’enclavement dans laquelle sont confrontées les populations et autorités locales, a été un facteur de succès de nos actions.
En effet, la figure de l’étranger manque de substitut à Lékana comme ailleurs, L’étranger c’est-à-dire l’opérateur projet, occupe une place absolue dans la mentalité collective. C’est la figure de la motivation, Il reste difficile de lui trouver un substitut. Au départ de celui-ci, tout s’arrête. « Les gens diront nous sommes entre nous » pour exprimer cette crise de leadership.
Il faudra réinventer la relation technicien-paysan. L’opérateur d’appui devra vraisemblablement mettre à profit de la solidarité paysanne, sa capacité d’augmenter l’efficacité des paysans dans la réorganisation des activités nécessaires à la valorisation de leur capital. D’où la démarche de ECP de consolider la capacité de contracter des acteurs locaux.

13. Mécanismes-clés de coordination, de communication et de travail qui ont été établis entre les organisations étatiques, locales et non-gouvernementales pertinentes (Veuillez décrire brièvement toute bonne pratique et leçon apprise qui pourrait être reproduite afin d’établir et de maintenir de bonnes relations entre les autorités nationales, régionales et locales et les ONG)
Notre mission de constat dans le district de Lékana(Congo) a été confiée à un étudiant de Master2 Economie Territoriale et Développement (UPMF Grenoble France) originaire du village Tsékampika Lékana, qui en acceptant inscrire cette mission dans le cadre de son projet d’études, souhaitait trouver un cadre règlementaire pour mieux faire écouter ses observations et recommandations.
L’encadrement de ce Master par l’Université Pierre Mendes France de Grenoble a suscité une réelle adhésion des autorités locales qui ont accordées toutes les facilités de recherche à l’étudiant. Cela a permis une collaboration plus claire avec les autorités locales à cause de la crédibilité du travail.
Cette année, nous y retournions avec un autre encadrement, celui du PRA/OSIM (programme des organisations de solidarité internationale issues des migrations) porté par le FORIM (Forum des Organisations de Solidarité Internationale issues des migrations) et financé par l’AFD (Agence Française de Développement) ; Dispositif auquel nous avons répondu à l’appel à projet PRA/OSIM 2016.
Sept milles Euros (7000 Euros) sont accordés à l’association pour mener un projet d’insertion professionnelle par l’activité de tissage du raphia chez 25 Jeunes âgés de 15 à 35 ans au Village Tsékampika – Lékana. A chaque fois l’implication des autorités est attestée. Pour ce projet, la commune rurale et le lycée agricole de Lékana vont contribuer à la réalisation du projet par le déploiement des élèves stagiaires à Tsékampika qui confectionneront des pépinières de plants de palmiers raphias qui seront ensuite distribués au paysans à Tsékampika ( 677 Euros). Le mouvement « Vivre et faire Vivre Tsékampika » lancé à Tsékampika s’encre progressivement, et actuellement récupéré par les autorités pour organiser la mobilisation des ressources humaines et l’identification du patrimoine matériel et immatériel du territoire.
Les actions migrantes accompagnées trouveront plus de la crédibilité et de l’implication des autorités locales que quand elles sont directement mises en oeuvre par ceux-ci. Souvent qualifiés d’initiatives individuelles ou servant l’intérêt familial, ces initiatives bien que nombreuses surtout dans les villes, ont du mal à trouver leur place dans les politiques publiques locales. La culture de conformité aux conditions des bailleurs en est la raison principale.
Le dispositif jumelage coopération, qui se développe rapidement entre Nord-Sud, peut être un autre outil d’encadrement de l’initiative migrante et d’une meilleure collaboration avec les autorités locales.
Dans le contexte Français, la gestion d’un contrat de jumelage peux être remis à une association. Cela devait être un moyen de mettre les migrants en relations avec leur commune d’origines et les autorités de ces localités. Telles est l’objectif que nous nous sommes fixés : donner une légitimité politique au Comité de gestion pour le développement pour que celui-ci devienne un véritable interlocuteur de la collectivité en matière de coopération décentralisée.

This contribution was provided by Juan Antonio Segura Lucas, Director of Fundación Cepaim:

1.      ¿Cómo puede la sociedad civil brindar apoyo a las ciudades para asegurar la inclusión y la protección de los migrantes y refugiados vulnerables, así como fomentar la resiliencia y el desarrollo? ¿Qué buenas prácticas y aprendizajes pueden ser identificados?

Distinguimos distintas fases en un proceso de cambio social, en primer lugar, la sensibilización de la sociedad autóctona con la situación de vulnerabilidad, en segundo lugar, el refuerzo de las relaciones vecinales entre migrantes y autóctonos, basadas en la igualdad y, en tercer lugar, ejecución de presión política realizada conjuntamente entre autóctonos y migrantes.

Tanto si hablamos de sociedad civil organizada (asociaciones, entidades de acción social, etc...) como la sociedad civil no organizada (barrios, grupos emergentes, etc...) vemos la necesidad de apertura a colectivos de migrantes o refugiados para poder reforzar las relaciones de cercanía y vecindad entre autóctonos y migrantes. Solo cuando las personas saben qué le sucede a su vecino/a, puede empatizar con su situación debido a la alta intoxicación existente en los medios de comunicación y, por tanto, construir conjuntamente posibles solucionesy exigirlas a quien tenga la responsabilidad política.

La sociedad civil puede y debe reivindicar la ciudadanía de pleno derecho para todas las personas migrantes que les sitúen en situación de igualdad, para poder construir una ciudad inclusiva.

A continuación exponemos distintas propuestas en relación a lo anterior:

·         Apoyando la organización y participación de la sociedad civil en entidades y organizaciones sociales ciudadanas (asociaciones de vecinos, plataformas…)

·         Aportando recursos (económicos), conocimiento, experiencia y técnicos/as complementarios en el territorio.

·         Enfoque ideológico de las entidades sociales, como espacios para la participación de las personas migrantes (pasar del concepto de “trabajar para” al concepto de “trabajar con”).

·         Posibilitando procesos de colaboración, cooperación y trabajo en red desde la perspectiva local.

·         Apoyando el paso de enfoques de políticas municipales sectoriales a políticas transversales; mayor coordinación entre departamentos de la administración local.

·         Apoyando una mayor coordinación entre la administración local y autonómica.

·         Apoyando el liderazgo de la administración local en todo ese proceso de trabajo en red.

·         Posibilitando la articulación de estructuras locales para la participación de los protagonistas claves en el territorio en condiciones de paridad: administración, técnicos/as y vecinos/as. Estructuras del tipo de mesas de trabajo temáticas, comisiones,….. Estas estructuras locales, han de tener como funciones principales: identificación de necesidades específicas del territorio, formulación de propuestas (desde la reorganización de los recursos existentes en un territorio, hasta la formulación de propuestas innovadoras,…), seguimiento del impacto de las políticas municipales, órgano consultivo municipal,….

·         Participando activamente en el diseño, planificación, desarrollo, seguimiento y evaluación de las políticas locales (sociales, empleo, salud, educación, urbanismo, vivienda,…..).

Buenas Prácticas:

-   Proyecto Intervención Comunitaria Intercultural de la Obra Social La Caixa,

-   Proyectos de Trabajo Comunitario Intercultural en barrios (Fundación Cepaim),

-   Proyecto de promoción del asociacionismo autóctono e inmigrante en colaboración con la Administración Local “Creando Redes”,…

-   Otras experiencias: www.buenaspracticascomunitarias.org

 

2.      ¿Cómo puede la sociedad civil apoyar a las autoridades locales y regionales para involucrar a la diáspora en el fomento de la integración, la protección social, la promoción de los derechos laborales y la transmisión de conocimiento, así como en el apoyo a los emprendedores y en la inversión para el desarrollo local? Por favor, incluya algunos ejemplos.

 ·         Participando en la elaboración de Planes locales de acogida y adaptación de las personas migrantes acogidas, así como de Planes de Convivencia Intercultural y Cohesión Social donde participen en condiciones de paridad en la toma de decisiones personas pertenecientes a la diáspora.

 

 3.      ¿Cómo pueden la sociedad civil y las ciudades trabajar conjuntamente para combatir la xenofobia y la violencia y asegurar la cohesión social? ¿Cuáles son las buenas prácticas y aprendizajes ya existentes? Por favor, aporte algunos ejemplos

La lucha contra el racismo y la xenofobia debe nacer de un cambio en el modelo de inclusión social.Nos encontramos con un modelo en el que es el migrante el que debe adaptarse al entorno y al país de acogida (asimilación), debiendo construir una sociedad en base a identidades compartidas, ya que la diversidad genera un nuevo escenario social donde los grupos identitarios minoritarios se ven oprimidos frente al mayoritario. No se trata de que unos se adapten a los otros, sino que la diversidad ha generado un nuevo paradigma en nuestros jóvenes que hace necesario la construcción de nuevas identidades sociales que pasen por contener características de una cultura y otra.

Se debe iniciar el cambio desde la educación inclusiva y la pedagogía social, incluidos en los medios de comunicación, ya que lo imperante es el discurso del miedo al extranjero y hacia lo diferente. Se deben desmontar estereotipos y prejuicios constantemente, por parte de la sociedad civil, pero más si cabe por parte de la Administración Pública y la Política.

La pobreza y la exclusión plantean una situación donde lo primero es sobrevivir no habiendo alternativas ni oportunidades para muchas de las personas migrantes, carentes de referentes culturales que sirvan de ejemplo para modelos de integración más allá de los referentes religiosos. La pobreza genera desigualdad enfrentando unos contra otros no viendo la necesidad de construir y exigir conjuntamente cambios, mejoras y soluciones en nuestros barrios y ciudades.

Hacemos a continuación algunas aportaciones al respecto:

·         Articulación de un Pacto Local de Fomento de la Convivencia y Cohesión Social, que implique a Gobierno, oposición, entidades sociales, asociaciones vecinales, colectivos de personas migrantes, líderes religiosos, medios de comunicación, …

·         Creación a nivel municipal de una imagen-marca de la localidad: ciudad socialmente responsable.

·         Fomento de políticas locales activas de gestión de la diversidad y cohesión social. Desarrollo de Programas de Convivencia en Barrios.

·         Campañas de sensibilización promovidas y lideradas por los propios colectivos ciudadanos/as.

·         Mayor implicación de los medios de comunicación en el desarrollo de políticas de gestión de la diversidad y cohesión social.

·         Apoyando el desarrollo de políticas de reubicación diseminada de hogares habilitados para las familias migrantes.

.        Aplicación de las propuestas incluidas en la Declaración de Zaragoza de 2010, durante la Presidencia Española de la UE. "Dado que las ciudades y sus barrios son zonas privilegiadas para impulsar el diálogo intercultural y promover la diversidad cultural y la cohesión social, es importante que las autoridades municipales creen y obtengan capacidades para gestionar mejor la diversidad y luchar contra el racismo, la xenofobia y todas las formas de discriminación. Para ello, tendrían que intentar poner a punto herramientas que les ayuden a elaborar políticas públicas adaptadas alas diversas necesidades de la población. En este contexto, hay que tener presente los aspectos espaciales de los retos de la integración, como son los barrios segregados. Para luchar contra la desigualdad, es preciso invertir en los barrios con una alta concentración de inmigrantes".

Buenas prácticas:

Proyecto anti rumores de Cataluña. http://www.antirumores.com/

Proyecto de educación inclusiva en el barrio del Cabañal (Valencia) sobre grupos cooperativos diversos.

Otras experiencias: www.buenaspracticascomunitarias.org. Publicación de la Fundación Cepaim.

Plan Estratégico de Ciudadanía e Integración de España 2011/2014.

Plan de Convivencia en Barrios en el marco del FEI. Secretaria General de Inmigración y Emigración del Gobierno de España. ( Convocatoria de subvenciones que tuvo una duración de solo dos anualidades).

 

4.      Tanto las ciudades como la sociedad civil suelen quedar apartadas de las decisiones políticas tomadas a nivel nacional e internacional en relación a la protección de los migrantes y refugiados, aunque estas tengan normalmente un impacto en el ámbito local. Esto puede deberse a una falta de apoyo por parte de las instancias nacionales, que se traduce en un déficit de consulta y escucha de las voces locales. También puede ser el fruto de una falta de competencias y recursos o de interés político. ¿Con qué obstáculos se ha encontrado para establecer una colaboración? ¿Cómo pueden las ciudades y la sociedad civil trabajar conjuntamente para superarlos? Por favor, no dude en incluir algunos ejemplos. 

·         Obstáculos identificados:

o   Deficiente comunicación entre las diferentes administraciones.

o   Insuficiente comunicación entre las entidades sociales presentes en el territorio.

o   Desconocimiento de la ciudadanía de las políticas que vienen desde las instituciones europeas.

o   Promoción de líneas de financiación de actuaciones totalmente incoherentes con un modelo que fomente la gestión de la convivencia y la cohesión social

o   Burocratización del procedimiento para la gestión de proyectos y actuaciones.

o   No aplicación del principio de Gobernanza democrática en la definición de las políticas.

o   Deficits de coordinación y trabajo en red entre instituciones públicas y sociales.

o   Insuficiente reconocimiento por las autoridades públicas del papel de las entidades del tercer sector de acción social.

o   Solapamiento de líneas de intervención en un mismo territorio.

·         Estrategias que pueden contribuir a mejorar:

o   Fomento de redes locales de análisis e identificación de necesidades, de planificación, desarrollo, seguimiento y evaluación del impacto de planes locales de acción.

o   Participación activa de las entidades locales y de la sociedad civil a través de las entidades sociales en los espacios de debate del modelo de organización del Estado y de Europa.

o   Mayor implicación de la sociedad en el diseño y evaluación de la agenda política.

o   Aplicación del principio de Gobernanza democrática en la definición de las políticas, implementación, seguimiento y evaluación de las mismas.

o   Mayor implicación de la sociedad en el diseño de los programas electorales de los partidos políticos.

o   Puesta en valor de estrategias de gestión basadas en la transparencia.

Buenas Prácticas:

-          Red Europea de Ciudades Interculturales (RECI).http://www.ciudadesinterculturales.com/

 -          Red Europea de Ciudades Inteligentes (RECI).

www.redciudadesinteligentes.es

 -          Estrategia Europea de Desarrollo Urbano Sostenible Integrado.

5.      ¿Cuáles son los factores clave que permiten establecer una colaboración entre múltiples actores, provenientes de la sociedad civil y del gobierno de las ciudades, basada en la confianza y que contribuya adecuadamente al potencial de la migración para el desarrollo? ¿Qué obstáculos pueden darse? ¿Cómo pueden ser superados? Por favor, incluya algunos ejemplos.

Desde la aprobación de la Agenda 2030 sobre el desarrollo sostenible y los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS), por primera vez, la migración pasa a formar parte del ámbito principal de políticas de desarrollo mundial. Se prioriza en varios de los objetivos (El Objetivo 8 destaca la situación de los trabajadores migrantes en el crecimiento económico y el trabajo decente; El Objetivo 16 presenta la lucha contra la trata de personas para promover sociedades pacíficas e inclusivas; El Objetivo 17 asienta las bases del análisis de la situación migratoria como factor de desagregación en el seguimiento y evaluación), sin embargo, la meta 10.7 es el elemento central de la migración en la Agenda 2030. Abarca todos los aspectos de la migración al reclamar “políticas migratorias bien gestionadas”.

El papel de la sociedad civil organizada ha sido, y es, clave en la promoción de propuestas e iniciativas de coordinación y posicionamiento en el proceso de debate y construcción de la Agenda de Desarrollo. Ha tenido un papel activo formando alianzas en plataformas y en las consultas nacionales, regionales y globales sobre las cuestiones de las migraciones. Ha colaborado en el impulso de la articulación de un posicionamiento conjunto sobre los factores claves del papel de las migraciones en el desarrollo y ha realizado aportes de cara a la nueva agenda de desarrollo.

Para una correcta implementación de la agenda global de desarrollo a escala local -la más cercana a las persona- y desde un enfoque cosmopolita del desarrollo es necesario oír las voces de la sociedad civil ya que, junto a al personal técnico de las administraciones locales, son los actores más conocedores de la realidad cercana.

Ahora bien, la sociedad civil en su papel de denuncia social e incidencia política, ha alertado en diferentes foros de debate y construcción de la agenda global de desarrollo sobre la incoherencia entre las declaraciones de intenciones y los contenidos programáticos de la agenda.

Y a este respecto, la sociedad civil denuncia:

1. que mientras se adopta un discurso que reconoce la centralidad de los derechos de las personas migrantes en la nueva agenda, la atención sigue poniéndose en el crecimiento económico.

2. la falta de voluntad política para reformular el paradigma de desarrollo imperante “que prioriza el beneficio económico por encima de las personas” agravando así las desigualdades y propiciando los conflictos y sus consecuentes movimientos de población.

3. la falta un de compromiso firme y de recursos para el análisis y posterior implementación de estrategias y opciones acogida de personas desplazadas, migrantes, en la sociedad.

3. la degradación ambiental que genera la actual economía mundial de desarrollo que provoca y acelera los efectos migratorios en zonas rurales.

4. por último, desde las organizaciones y redes feministas se pone el foco de atención en que la actual crisis migratoria y refugio sigue sin establecer unos compromisos firmes a muchas cuestiones críticas de género. Entre estas cuestiones se destacan las diferentes manifestaciones de las violencias de género, los derechos sexuales y reproductivos, la invisibilidad de los efectos de los trabajos de cuidado y la discriminación de las mujeres en la inserción en el lugar de destino, al mundo laboral.

En este sentido hay factores clave que pueden ayudar a la colaboración entre los actores de cada territorio, a continuación aportamos algunos:

·         Creación de estructuras de participación desde el ámbito local: mesas temáticas, comisiones de trabajo. Estas estructuras deben de regirse por el principio de paridad en la participación (todos tienen la misma capacidad de decisión), de corresponsabilidad, de transparencia.

·         Desarrollo de un modelo de liderazgo de la administración local basado en la corresponsabilidad, su papel facilitador, participación de todxs en condiciones de paridad, transparencia-

·         Apoyo político claro a las estructuras locales de participación (mesas, comisiones,…).

·         Fomento del trabajo en red.

·         Fomento de enfoques de trabajo intersectorial desde la perspectiva del territorio.

Unido a lo que la sociedad civil denuncia desde distintos foros queremos destacar algunos factores que obstaculizan esta colaboración.

·         Enfoque del liderazgo por parte de la Administración Local basado en el protagonismo de los gobernantes vs la participación en condiciones de paridad con la ciudadanía y la sociedad civil organizada.

·         Enfoque de la estrategia relacional excluyente. Es necesario que la Administración Local promueva espacios de relación inclusivos e integradores y no exclusivos y segregacionistas.

·         Déficit de transparencia en la gestión del liderazgo de la Administración Local.

Frente a estas denuncias globales, las propuestas que realizamos desde la Fundación Cepaim para establecer la colaboración de la sociedad civil y del gobierno de las ciudades que contribuya adecuadamente al potencial de la migración para el desarrollo son:

1.       Potenciar la participación de las personas migrantes en los contextos públicos y civiles.

 2.       La presencia de la sociedad civil organizada no meramente como miembros consultivos o de denuncia y movilización ciudadana, sino en todo el ciclo de las políticas públicas migratorias locales desde su diseño hasta la de toma de decisiones.

 3.       La contemplación de recursos y estrategias concretas de implementación desde lo local para la consecución de las políticas migratorias que aseguren los derechos humanos de las personas migrantes y desplazadas,independientemente de suestatus legal, mediante la igualdad de acceso a servicios sociales, educación, vivienda y empleo y establecer acuerdos entre las administraciones para facilitarles el acceso.

 4.       La elaboración de unas agendas locales de reuniones y acuerdos mínimos entre la administración local y la sociedad civil para facilitar y asegurar la inclusión económica de las personas migrantes mediante la formación laboral, el reconocimiento de estudios, empleos e iniciativas empresariales.

 5.       Apoyar y fortalecer las redes de incidencia política para reducir cualquier forma de violencia y violación de los derechos de los migrantes (incluyendo laviolencia fronteriza)y las muertes (incluyendo las sobrevenidas por viajes por mar o tierra), asícomoperseguirel tráfico humano.

 6.       Enfatizar la dimensión de género en las situaciones de vulnerabilidad de las personas migrantes, especialmente de las mujeres y niños/as.

Buenas Prácticas:

-          Red Europea de Ciudades Interculturales (RECI). http://www.ciudadesinterculturales.com/

 -          Red Europea de Ciudades Inteligentes (RECI).

 -          Estrategia Europea de Desarrollo Urbano Sostenible Integrado.

6.      En los últimos años, los migrantes viviendo, trabajando, estudiando, viajando o transitando por países que estaban experimentando un conflicto o un desastre natural, se han visto afectados de manera desproporcionada. ¿Cuál es el papel de la sociedad civil ante esta situación y cómo puede responder a las necesidades de los migrantes en países en crisis? Por favor, aporte ejemplos de cómo la sociedad civil ha contribuido a salvar vidas, proteger la dignidad y los derechos de los migrantes o aliviar su sufrimiento, especialmente en el apogeo de estas crisis.

Hoy día, reconocida ya ampliamente la importancia de tener en cuenta las voces de la sociedad civil en el diseño e implementación de las políticas internacionales, son varias las organizaciones de trabajo con personas migrantes, a escala internacional, nacional y local que gozan del estatuto de colaboradores, observadores o similar con las administraciones. Sin ir más lejos, actualmente, la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones (OIM) cuenta con más de 50 organizaciones que gozan del estatuto de Observador con las que dialoga sobre políticas migratorias en las consultas anuales y sesiones informativas periódicas e incluso actúan en la cooperación programática se lleva a cabo en el terreno.

  En las situaciones de emergencia y posconflicto, la sociedad civil juega un papel muy importante en la organización de la ayuda de emergencia y la ayuda humanitaria. Siguiendo las observaciones que estas organizaciones realizan a  la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones (OIM) en este sentido, desde la F. Cepaim queremos reforzar la importancia de la sociedad civil concretamente:

1.       velando por el cumplimiento de los derechos humanos en los casos de crisis humanitarias, desastre naturales y conflictos armados;

2.       Gestionando y apoyando las evacuaciones y retornos seguros y ordenados de poblaciones desplazadas;

3.       Proporcionando albergue y asistencia humanitaria en situaciones de emergencia;

4.       Identificando y encarando las preocupaciones en materia de protección internacional; 

5.       realizando los censos y encuestas necesarias en materia administrativa;

6.       colaborando en las evaluaciones de salud de posibles migrantes y refugiados con miras a su reasentamiento y retorno, y para encarar toda una gama de cuestiones de salud.

7.       organizando el retorno y reintegración de desplazados internos, así como de excombatientes y personas a su cargo.

8.       apoyando la lucha contra la Trata de personas desde los servicios de protección, asesoramiento y apoyo médico, así como asistencia para el retorno y la reintegración.

9.       facilitando la asistencia de retorno a migrantes en situación irregular y otros migrantes, por ejemplo, solicitantes de asilo rechazados, migrantes objeto de trata y nacionales calificados.

10.   organizando y difundiendo campañas de información encaminadas directamente a la concienciación en materia de derechos humanos de los migrantes. También en la realización de estudios y acopio de información a fin de identificar y encarar cualquier tipo de abuso.

11.   prestación de asistencia en los distintos componentes del reasentamiento temporal y permanente o en los programas de retorno de migrantes a sus países de origen, es decir, en materia de orientación cultural, búsqueda de familiares y reunificación familiar, patrocinios, asistencia durante el tránsito, y servicios de seguimiento tras el traslado.

12.   fomentando y promoviendo la migración laboral regular en el marco de la lucha contra la migración irregular; fomentar el desarrollo socioeconómico de los países de origen, tránsito y destino; y velar por el respeto de los derechos e integridad de los trabajadores migrantes.

Buenas Prácticas:

Programas de Acogida, Asilo y Refugio de la Fundación Cepaim.

La iniciativa Caravana a Greciahttp://caravanaagrecia.info/

Petición de Firmas de la Plataforma Change sobre la crisis de las personas refugiadas: https://www.change.org/t/refugiados-2?source_location=homepage

Ciudades Refugio http://www.andaluciasolidaria.org/noticias/item/578-ciudades-refugio-mun...

Iniciativa Migrantes en Países en Crisis (MICIC)y el Sistema para la Protección de los Refugiados y las Personas en Busca de Asilo (SPRAR)

 

This contribution was provided by Stella Opoku-Owusu, Engagement and Capacity Manager, AFFORD - The African Foundation for Development: 

2.  What is the role of civil society in supporting local and regional authorities to reach out and engage with diaspora? For example, in order to foster their support in integration, social protection, promoting labour rights and fostering knowledge transfer, entrepreneurship and investment for local development? Please provide examples.

To support local and regional authorities to reach out and engage with the diaspora, civil society’s role must be to advocate, provide reliable information, practical knowledge and expertise that help local and regional authorities to reach out and engage with the diaspora.

More specifically, civil society, in particular diaspora and migrant-led organisations, should be trained to  provide expertise to countries of origin to develop national diaspora engagement policies, with a view to integrating this with local and regional development planning.  Where diaspora engagement policies already exist, diaspora / migrant-led organisations should play a role in integrating these with local development planning.  This strategy can help synergise diaspora and migrant contributions to development which are often not synced with local development planning and vice versa.

Translating diaspora engagement policies into implementation also requires technical expertise and this remains a challenge for implementing countries.  Civil society, in conjunction with diaspora and migrant-led organisations, should provide technical assistance and expertise to local and regional authorities to enable them implement and execute these policies.

While governments are looking at financial instruments such as diaspora bonds to maximise remittances, civil society, in particular diaspora and migrant-led organisations, could lend support to initiatives such as municipality diaspora bonds or other diaspora community development funds that help local and regional authorities to maximise remittances for local development.   Beyond that, civil society should also play a role in providing technical assistance in implementing diversified diaspora investment instruments – municipal bonds, diaspora development funds, diaspora and migrant community funds for social enterprises and investment funds etc

Civil society, and diaspora and migrant-led organisations, can provide better understanding and information on diaspora and migrant engagement that enables local and regional authorities to balance migrant/diaspora socio-economic development with non-migrant socio-economic development in countries of origin. For example, country of origin governments, development partners etc, must provide same level of support to local businesses as to diaspora enterprises.

Diaspora and migrants play a significant role in job creation, entrepreneurship and investment, most of which contribution sits within the SME sector.  In the context of Africa, for example, where 60-90% of most economies is supported by the SME sector, this makes the contributions of diaspora and migrants to development very significant.   Additionally, the SME sector is often supported through local governments.  Civil society should support local authorities in developing local development plans that stimulates the SME sector locally but also supports diaspora and migrant-led entrepreneurs and investors to add value to the sector by creating jobs, and ensuring decent work.  For example, through a DFID and Comic Relief CGI programme, AFFORD is being funded, as one of 5 delivery partners, to encourage more investment in small businesses and build better links between business leaders in the UK and Africa.   The other CGI partners are being funded to support innovative partnerships between organisations in the UK and Africa that champion the leadership of women. The partnerships will help women in Africa challenge inequality and have a stronger voice in their communities.

While AFFORD’s DFI project will focus on UK-based African diaspora businesses operating in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Rwanda and Zimbabwe, outreach will also be carried out with relevant country government representatives in the UK and in some cases with relevant departments in the African countries. Part of this project will also carry out more research to understand diaspora business trends and sectors of interest, as well as  develop fact sheets on how to do business in various countries.  These are all areas that civil society can play  a significant role in, supporting local and regional authorities to understand the role of the diaspora, and what it needs to maximise on the diaspora’s contribution to development.

http://bit.ly/2cKDF8p

www.afford-uk.org

Civil society can work with local and regional authorities to strengthen diaspora and migrant access to public contract and public procurement in countires of origin.  For example, through AFFORD’s work on its ABC project (AFFORD Business Centre) in Sierra Leone, public contract and public procurement training was offered, in conjunction with the Sierra Leone High Commission in the UK, to Sierra Leonean and other African diaspora.

3.    How can civil society and cities work together to combat xenophobia, violence and ensure social cohesion?  What good practices and lessons learned exist? Please provide examples.

Civil society and cities can work together to develop anti-xenophobia campaigns at city level.  Civil society often have the expertise and the knowledge but lack resources while cities have the resources but not necessarily the expertise and both can therefore complement each other.  AFFORD and MADE initiated Global Diaspora Day in June 2016, an online campaign providing exposure to the contributions of diaspora and migrants to development, as well as anti-xenophobia campaigns or activities.  It was clear that there were lots of worthwhile initiatives that could make an impact if more resources were put into it.  In El Salvador, an annual festival has been held since 2014 to celebrate the history of African descendants ‘‘Dia de la Afrodescendencia Salvadoreña’, founded by Hugo Miller.  This festival is held in Zacatecoluca, and is supported by the Mayor.  This was one of the contributions received for GDD16.

The Africa-Europe Diaspora Development Platform (ADEPT), managed by AFFORD is in the process of carrying out an anti-xenophobia campaign which will engage local governments in some European countries. 

Civil society, in particular inter/multi-faith organisations, should collaborate more with cities.  In the UK, the InterFaith Network UK, in collaboration with Communities and Local Government department hold an inter-faith week every year, involving inter/multi-faith groups across the country who are all supported to hold events that bring different faith communities together in that week.  http://www.interfaithweek.org/

Two recommendations from GFMD 2015, suggested that civil society must work with local authorities and contribute to their training on developing sensitivities around the rights of migrants.  They must also advocate for migrants to vote on local issues.  Additionally civil society and cities can work together to ensure the social inclusion of migrants in societies, by providing access to public services, language training, local voting rights and pathways to citizenship.  http://www.madenetwork.org/sites/default/files/background-documents/GFMD...

5. What are the Key success factors to ensuring a trusting and functional multi-stakeholder partnership among civil society actors and cities in their efforts to work together to harness the development potential of migration?  What obstacles can hinder such partnerships? How can these be overcome? Please provide examples'. 

Civil society face challenges (lack of capacity, lack of resources, lack of information, etc) and need support to do this work effectively. Currently they do much of it for free - which is not sustainable.  This 'free contribution' needs to be identified and supported with technical and financial resources that brings them from the informal to the formal, as well as relevant information that helps to maximise the social impact that is made.  

This contribution was provided by Emmanuel Basubi, president of APRODEV-ONGD:

1-1       La première chose à faire par la société civile, c’est de vulgariser le concept migration et développement dans les villes en telle enseigne qu’elles s’aperçoivent de la place des migrants dans le développement local. Ensuite, la société civile devrait s’impliquer d’amont en aval dans toute initiative amorcée par les villes, visant à inciter la participation des migrants au développement local en apportant la lumière, le savoir et le savoir faire nécessaires sur le concept et son appropriation. La société civile devrait enfin participer à toute activité initiée par les villes dans le cadre de migration et développement.

Il convient de signaler que de prime à bord, le contexte local ne parvient pas encore à capitaliser, jusque là, l’apport des migrants dans le développement local ; néanmoins, dans la ville de Ouesso (département de la Sangha dans le nord du Congo-Brazzaville), ce sont des migrants qui soutiennent l’économie (petit commerce, entreprises forestières, business, agriculture (surtout les réfugiés rwandais). Cependant, aucune attention particulière n’est attachée à ces derniers.

Bonnes pratiques :

Lors d’une opération qui visait essentiellement l’expulsion forcée des migrants en situation irrégulière au Congo-Brazzaville en 2014, certaines autorités locales ainsi que leurs populations dans la partie nord du pays ont plaidé contre cette opération en faveur des migrants qui vivent dans leurs milieux étant donné qu’elles étaient conscientes de leur apport dans la vie socio-économiques de leurs localités respectives.
Quelques populations locales imitent quelques bonnes pratiques des migrants, inhérentes à l’incitation au travail manuel (le maraîchage, le petit commerce, l’élevage, etc.)

1-2       La société civile a un rôle PILE et FACE dans son soutien aux autorités locales et régionales :

FACE :

o   Eclairer les autorités locales et régionales sur les questions de migration et développement

o   Participer à l’élaboration des politiques publiques en la matière

o   Apport du savoir, du savoir faire ainsi que faire savoir aux autorités locales et régionales.

PILE :

o   Sensibiliser les migrants sur leurs obligations vis-à-vis du pays d’accueil pour qu’ils méritent la confiance des autorités locales

o   Les accompagner dans la réponse à ces obligations

o   Identifier les domaines de compétence et du savoir faire des migrants et les mettre à la disposition des autorités locales et régionales

o   Plaidoyer auprès des autorités locales et régionales pour la promotion des droits des migrants.

Exemples :

-          Rappeler aux autorités locales que les migrants en séjour régulier jouissent de mêmes droits que les nationaux ;

-          Vulgariser le processus de rabat et l’accord de Rome ainsi que d’autres instruments juridiques aussi bien aux migrants qu’aux populations locales.

1-3       La société civile devrait jouer le rôle d’interface entre les migrants et les villes. En effet, la société civile devrait travailler auprès des migrants pour les connaitre afin de les faire connaitre au niveau des villes. Par ailleurs, la société civile et les villes devraient mettre en place une stratégie commune de formation et d’information sur les migrants en faveur des populations hostiles à la présence étrangère.

Exemples :

-          Pour Ouesso, démontrer que grâce aux réfugiés rwandais, les produits maraîchers et ingrédients de cuisine sont produits localement et ne sont plus l’apanage exclusif de l’importation à partir du Cameroun voisin.

-          APRODEV-ONGD procède actuellement à la campagne de sensibilisation sur la migration et le développement ainsi que sur la migration régulière dans le département de la Sangha.

-          Démontrer que grâce à la présence des Ouest-Africains à Ouesso, les articles et denrées de base sont accessibles à proximité au sein des quartiers de Ouesso.

1-4       Obstacles :

Ø  Indifférence des autorités locales et autres acteurs de la société civile vis-à-vis du phénomène migratoire

Ø  Absence du dialogue sur la migration et développement

Ø  Quelques faits xénophobes constatés surtout que les initiatives sur les migrants dans le milieu sont opérées par les migrants eux-mêmes

Ø  Mauvaise perception sur la migration

Ø  Manque d’information sur le concept migration et développement.

Pour dépasser cette situation :

ü  Le concept migration et développement devra être vulgarisé dans le milieu

ü  Il faudra sensibiliser les autorités locales à bannir l’indifférence et amorcer le dialogue sur la migration et développement à cette ère de la promotion de la migration sud-sud

ü  Il faudrait en outre informer les populations locales sur le bien fondé de la migration et développement.

1-5       Facteurs clef :

ü  Même niveau de perception sur le concept migration et développement de la part des partenaires

ü  Appropriation du potentiel de la migration et développement par tous les partenaires

ü  Approche participative dans l’élaboration des politiques publiques en la matière

ü  Promotion et respect des droits des migrants par tous

ü  Accomplissement des obligations des migrants vis-à-vis des pays d’accueil.

Obstacles :

§  Manque de cadre de concertation

§  Exclusion d’autres parties dans l’élaboration des politiques publiques

§  Indifférence des parties vis-à-vis des initiatives afférentes aux migrants.

Solutions :

·         Dialogue inclusif

·         Plaidoyers

·         Concertations

·         Sensibilisation et/ou vulgarisation des concepts et instruments juridiques

·         Capitalisation et appropriation de bonnes pratiques à partir des tiers.

1-6       Rôle de la société civile :

[*]       Information-Education-Communication (IEC) sur le concept migration et développement

[*]       Identification des migrants

[*]       Diagnostic de leurs besoins et contraintes

[*]       Reporting et diffusion des données afférentes aux migrants

[*]       Elaboration des fiches-projets /états de besoin

[*]       Plaidoyers /Recherche de financement

[*]       Intervention sur terrain /Prise en charge

[*]       Suivi-évaluation

[*]       Surveillance de la recrudescence.

Exemples :

v  Très souvent lorsqu’il y a mort d’un migrant dans la ville, la Marie de Ouesso s’appuie aux communautés étrangères pour prendre en charge les obsèques et apporter l’information à qui de droit

v  Au Congo-Brazzaville, la politique nationale sur la gratuité de la césarienne, du traitement du Paludisme  chez les femmes enceintes et les enfants de 0 à 5 ans ainsi que la distribution des antirétroviraux bénéficie aussi bien aux populations locales qu’aux migrants.

This contribution was provided by IDEAL AFRIQUE:

4.      Principales dynamiques de migration et de développement

Le Sénégal est, depuis plusieurs décennies, un pays d’émigration. Les destinations sont bien sûr multiples, mais elles se concentrent en Europe avec une prépondérance de l’Italie qui est devenue premier pays d’accueil pour les sénégalais. Pour faire comprendre l’ampleur de ce phénomène, il suffit de penser que selon le rapport 2015 de l’Organisation International pour la Migration (OIM) les transferts financiers de la diaspora sénégalaise sont estimés à 1.000 F CFA (environ 1,5 milliards d’euros): ces ressources sont orientées principalement vers la consommation et les investissements immobiliers au Sénégal. Si d’une coté cela alimente une partie de l’économie nationale, de l’autre cette utilisation des fonds venant de l’étranger ne contribue pas à la création d’une vraie spirale de développement.

Cet aspect  pourrait par contre être pris en compte par la volonté croissante de plus en plus de migrants de retourner dans leur territoire d’origine. Ce retour est raisonné et programmé dans le temps et souvent porte avec lui des projets économiques à réaliser dans le territoire d’origine capables de donner un nouvel élan aux dynamiques économiques locales grâce à des compétences et à une vision acquises ailleurs pendant plusieurs années.

 8.      Principaux objectifs de votre organisation en lien avec la migration et le développement

IDEAL Afrique conçoit le migrant comme un pont reliant ses pays d’origine et d’accueil, comme une source de richesse pour les deux. En partant de cette conviction, IDEAL vise l’accompagnement, le soutien et l’implication de la diaspora sénégalaise en Europe dans le développement de leur pays natal à travers des projets ancrés aux territoires d’origine.

Cela peut se faire à travers l’accompagnement, le soutien et la formation adressés directement aux migrants qui envisagent le retour et qui ont un projet de réinsertion, ou bien à travers l’implication de la diaspora dans le projet de développement promus par leur collectivité locale d’origine.

Dans tous les cas, une solution peut se développer seulement à partir de la prise de conscience et de la connaissance des potentialités et spécificités propres à chaque territoire, qui font de chaque endroit un unicum. Dans ce sens, nous avons développé une compétence spécifique en marketing territorial au sein de notre équipe que nous avons déjà pu tester sur deux régions du Sénégal (Kaolack et Sédhiou) dans une phase précédente la formalisation de l’association. L’objectif est donc connaitre son territoire et ses potentialités pour pouvoir ensuite les exploiter de la meilleure façon possible dans la fase d’idéation d’u projet de développement territorial.

 9.      Principales activités liées à la migration et au développement

Nous avons entamé  le dialogue avec certaines associations de la diaspora sénégalaise en Italie notamment dans la Région Lombardie. Une première mission de prise de contact a été effectuée en Italie en juillet 2016 et plusieurs associations ont été rencontrées notamment le Mouvement des Etudiant de la Diaspora (MODED), l’Association Solidari Dimabalante et l’Association des Femmes sénégalaises de Voghera. Suite à l’exposition du but et de la mission d’IDEAL Afrique, des rencontres individuels ont été organisées avec les personnes intéressées: chacun a pu illustrer son projet et les contacts ont été échangés pour pouvoir poursuivre le travail de suivi et d’accompagnement individuel au Sénégal. BROCHURES

Concernant le volet collectivités locales, nous avons commencé travailler avec la Mairie de Darou Mousty, dans la Région administrative de Louga, une de zone d’émigration par excellence au Sénégal, sur un projet concernant l’approvisionnement en eau douce de la commune. Le processus se veut innovant et pertinent avec la thématique dès le début: l’étude diagnostic préalable est assuré par des jeunes chercheurs locaux à la recherche de travail et le modèle final proposé devra utiliser une technologie innovante pour le traitement de l’eau et créer des emplois sur le territoire en mettant ainsi en marche une dynamique de développement économique local et freinant l’émigration, tant vers le milieu urbain que vers l’extérieur.

10.  Principaux produits et réalisations

Après la première mission d’IDEAL Afrique en Italie, 03 idées de projet portées par des membres de la diaspora sénégalaise ont été identifiées et retenus pour être suivi et accompagnés.

Pour ce qui concerne les collectivités locales, le processus vertueux mis en place avec la Mairie de Darou Mousty, grâce aussi à sa pertinence et à son caractère fortement innovant, a tout de suite commencé montrer ses premiers résultats avec l’apparition d’un bailleur des fonds disposé à le cofinancer.

11.  Principaux obstacles

S’agissant d’une méthodologie participative et visant la durabilité des projets soutenus, une des principales difficultés est surement le temps: la plupart des individus et la totalité des collectivités locales sont pressées de voir leurs idées devenir réalité.

Une autre contrainte importante c’est le manque de confiance. Surtout quand il s’agit des individus qui investissent personnellement dans leurs projets, il y a un travail préalable à faire afin de gagner leur confiance et cela nécessite du temps.

Dans les deux cas, ce qui nous a permis de surmonter le problème est l’utilisation d’un réseau de proximité, des personnes capable de jouer le rôle de relais auprès des collectivités et de donner un visage plus humaine et au même  temps plus fiable à l’association qui venait de faire ses premiers pas.

Le dernier aspect, que je définirais un défi plutôt qu’un obstacle, réside dans la capacité d’IDEAL Afrique de se promouvoir et de se faire connaitre. Pour assurer cet aspect, nous consacrons grande importance aux nouvelles technologies et à la formation de notre équipe aux outils de dernière génération et notamment au TIC.

12.  Facteurs-clés de succès

Le plus important est surement l’équipe: nous sommes un petit group, mais qui peut compter sur des personnes engagées, passionnées et compétentes.

Deuxièmement, la méthodologie que nous utilisons prévoit une démarche fortement inclusive et innovante, capable d’absorber plusieurs niches de la population et d’impliquer au même temps le secteur privé et le publique, les territoires sénégalais et étrangers, les praticiens et le monde universitaire.

En troisième lieu, le suivi et l’accompagnement que nous proposons couvrent tout le processus nécessaire à la réalisation d’un projet, à partir de l’étude de faisabilité jusqu’au cofinancement et au lancement et développement. Cela nous permet de nous différencier des appuis ponctuels et fragmentés qui sont souvent offerts par des ONG, des organismes internationaux ou des projets spécifiques.

Pour conclure, l’attention que nous réservons aux aspects liés à a communication à propos de nos activité sont surement un facteur important de réussite sur la longue période.

13.  Mécanismes-clés de coordination, de communication et de travail qui ont été établis entre les organisations étatiques, locales et non-gouvernementales pertinentes

Etant une association de nouvelle formation, nous devons encore établir tous les liens nécessaires, mais un travail de mise en réseau en train de se faire à partir du quotidien. Nous envisageons l’utilisation d’un espace de co-working comme siège opérative de l’association afin de pouvoir tisser des relations intéressantes avec d’autres entités non gouvernementales.

Au niveau plus formel, une tournée de présentation de la structure et de ses principales activités est prévue pour permettre aux différents partenaires présents sur le territoire sénégalais de nous connaitre (ex. bailleurs des fonds, partenaires techniques, organismes internationaux, etc.).

Pour ce qui concerne les organisations étatiques, IDEAL Afrique collabore déjà avec le Ministère de la Gouvernance Locale, du Développement et de l’Aménagement du Territoire de la République du Sénégal ce qui peut être le point de départ pour d’autre collaboration future avec d’autres départements intéressés à nos activités.

This contribution was provided by Olesea Cazacu, Project manager, Migration and Local Development Project (MIDL), UNDP

 1.      Title and type of organization   

Title: United Nations Development Programe in Moldova, Migration and Local Development Project (MiDL), funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC).

3.      Country and region/territory  

Republic of Moldova, 25 pilot localities, MiDL partners and beneficiaries

   

4.      Main migration and development dynamics  

During the last twenty years, Republic of Moldova, faced successive mass migration waves which started in the 1990s and led to an outflow of Moldovan nationals, with almost a quarter of the country’s population currently residing abroad on a temporary of more permanent basis. Aware of these effects, but also of the huge potential migration can have for development, the Moldovan Government has undertaken lately considerable efforts to link migration with national strategies and mainstream migration in national development. However, little actions where made towards linking migration with local planning processes and engaging migrants in local development of their native localities. In that context, UNDP launched in 2015, the SDC funded Migration and Local Development Project, aimed at improving basic local services for communities affected by migration, based on the partnership between local governments and migrants and their joint contribution. 

8.      Main objectives of your organisation related to migration and development  

Under the MiDL Project, UNDP aims to develop and implement strategic policies, methodologies and procedures related to temporary, permanent and circular migration and link them to local development processes, which will enable further design and implementation of joint service improvement and income-generating initiatives, ensuring equal access for women, children, young people the elderly, the disabled, and other population groups in selected localities. Moreover, the project is developed as a replicable approach with potentials for scaling up, with intensive capacity building and strengthening of national and local public authorities to better plan, manage, budget, and implement public service management with participation of community members, including migrants.

9.      Main activities related to migration and development   

1. Strengthen the capacity of local governments in managing migration related processes, engaging with

community members and migrants into community planning, budgeting, implementation, monitoring and

evaluation for efficient service provision

2. Support the implementation of jointly selected service improvement initiatives, with active participation of migrants and community members (using inter-municipal cooperation, PPPs and other tools)

3. Promote investment opportunities for community members and migrants, through supporting

innovative job creation/economic activities in 25 target communities

4. Work on the establishment and capacitation of 25 territorial Hometown Associations, thus setting up a sustainable cooperation platform between local authorities, migrants and the local community.

5. Design and pilot support schemes for local services improvement and income-generating activities

6. Raise the awareness of the public on the benefits of migration for local development and promote good practices on the inclusive migrants’- oriented local development, in strong cooperation with M&D partners

10.  Main outputs and achievements  

The 25 target LPAs have strengthened capacities to engage with community members, including migrants in local planning, consultation and prioritization of local services (6400 persons, participated; 25 local socio-economic development strategies elaborated; 25 mayors and 25 local migration focal points trained and guided) via online platforms (over 5,000 migrants followed online LPAs and HTAs meetings) –ensuring cost-efficiency -and migration databases).

Platform for attracting/fostering and channelling migrants’ resources (financial and non-financial) into local investments designed and piloted through 25 Home Town Associations created (33% led by women, women being engaged at the rate of 61%). As the HTA secretariat is ensured by the LPAs, this leads to cost-efficiency and saving financial resources

Small-scale diaspora investments in projects for the inclusion of vulnerable groups (over 500 internal and international migrants from 25 target communities implemented over 100 projects in social, educational, cultural, ecological fields) having about 5000 children; 1200 women and elderly as beneficiaries)

11.  Main obstacles  

Volatile political and insecure environment – the implementation of the activities is planned and approached with caution, including timing, viability and issues of presentation.

Limited capacity of the Government to coordinate and implement activities at the local level - the activities work to enable cooperation and communication between local and central authorities, developing the capacities of the Congress of Local Authorities of Moldova to develop and implement all the project activities

Lack of trust and confidence of community members, migrants in central public authorities – to that end the project works to build confidence between community members and authorities, based on transparent, participaory and inclusive principles.

Lack of capacity and expertise of local authorities in developing partnerships and developing alternative services – here are used best practices, techniques and expertise to show tangible results and sustainable impact and work is done on identifying and strengthening synergies.

12.  Key success factors  

The main success factors that contributed to the due implementation of activities, was the competitive selection of 25 target communities piloting the mainstreaming of migration into local development and planning processes. Their interest and intention to cooperate and partner with migrants is crucial for the implementation and sustainability of envisaged results.

Not less important is the support of the national authorities in this process as well as continuous cooperation and coordination of all relevant stakeholders and partners in the field of M&D in Moldova.

Development of a tailor made model of Home Town association using international best practices and adapting it to the Moldovan local context and Diaspora specifics is one important key element.

Finally, one should mention that the involvement and consultation of migrants for the very beginning of the planning processes is a key to their further involvement, cooperation and contribution to local development.

 

13.  Key coordination, communication and working mechanisms that have been established among the relevant state, local and non-governmental organisations  

One essential result the project has achieved is the establishment of a viable and functional mechanism of continuous and efficient communication and cooperation between local authorities, migrants and the local community – called Hometown Associations. This mechanism already proved to be extremely efficient for a proper migrants’ engagement in local planning processes thus bringing their added value to the development of their native communities. Additionally the project set a network of migration focal points, which allow for a permanent exchange of experience and best practices between all involved local communities. Another platform – are the regular coordination meetings between all M&D partners in Moldova.

This response was provided by ICMC Europe and the MADE Network

1. How can civil society support cities to ensure the inclusion and the protection of vulnerable migrants and refugees for enhanced resilience and development? What good practices and lessons learned exist?

Over the last 4 years, the ICMC led SHARE project has built a European resettlement network of regions, cities and their civil society partners to promote refugee protection and refugee resettlement, a culture of welcome and increased capacity to plan and coordinate refugee reception and integration programmes in cities and regions across Europe. Engaging and working with regional and local actors, including local authorities and their civil society partners, involved in reception and integration in this context, SHARE experiences have shown national governments depend more and more on the support of cities and regions and their civil society partners to ensure that refugees will be received, housed and integrated.

Programmes to receive refugees will only be successful if integration is achieved in the longer term. National aims and objectives for refugee integration can provide regional and local actors with a useful basis to plan local programmes and interventions. Strong political leadership at the regional/local level will ensure constructive and sustainable engagement of relevant partners in achieving positive integration outcomes.

The recent increase in refugee arrivals to Europe has led to the establishment of many new grassroots, citizen-led initiatives across Europe, working alongside mainstream reception and integration actors in areas such as meeting the humanitarian needs of new arrivals, providing housing and promoting welcome. Whilst cultures of volunteering and grassroots action and engagement differ greatly across various national and local contexts, it can be said that citizens engagement in refugee integration is an increasingly prominent aspects of the ‘integration offer’ for refugees and newcomers in European cities and towns and an important new resource to add to mainstream programmes and services for refugees.

Schools and other educational institutions also have a crucial role to play in addressing misinformation, fear and prejudice. Cities should therefore reach out to schools that are receiving refugee children, to explain why the new classmates have arrived, and share information about the culture and backgrounds of the new classmates.

Churches have played a leading role in ‘welcoming strangers’, enabling dialogue between the host community and the newcomers and promoting cross cultural dialogue. Churches have also invested considerably in supplementing official integration programmes with additional resources and activities.

Integration tools, resources, challenges and expertise differ greatly across national, regional and local contexts in Europe, and can be factored into the design of national resettlement and relocation programmes.

It is crucial to build the integration capacity and expertise of local actors involved in designing and operating new programmes. European cities and towns with experience in receiving refugees are a resource to support this process for less experienced actors. Experienced local actors are best-placed to understand the challenges and priorities of their counterparts setting up new programmes, and to enable these programmes to build on existing expertise. They can draw on their own experience to identify common errors and challenges, and share the solutions and approaches they have developed. Therefore, peer exchange between regional and local actors is crucial to enabling new receiving communities to fully incorporate the body of European integration expertise. 

Examples include:

SHARE member, Archdiocese of Cologne in collaboration with Caritas, have launched the initiative Action on New Neighbors (Aktion Neue Nachbarn), building upon the core values of compassion, acceptance and a willingness to help refugees, and a belief that ‘contact and exchange means strangers become neighbors’.

The initiative supports grass roots reception and welcome initiative proposed by individual parishes, including housing, language-learning and awareness-raising. Ac on New Neighbours complements existing structures and programmes for refugee reception and integration by promoting welcome, expanding the type and nature of integration on support, strengthening the capacity and re- sources of local parishes to provide welcome activities and increasing the volunteering opportunities for local residents via their respective parishes.

The MADE programme has completed a pilot fund project in Honduras coordinated by the non-profit organisation Comisión de Acción Social Menonita (CASM) aimed at ensuring reintegration of young returned migrants. Despite the lack of support civil society receives from the national government in this area, through this project CASM managed to organise, with other civil society organisations in the region, meetings with the mayors of 9 municipalities in the Valle de Sula to try and include migration in their development plans. The meetings resulted with the development of a letter of commitment signed by the municipalities who welcomed the initative. This is a very positive development for the region. For more information please visit: http://madenetwork.org/pilot-fund-honduras      

2. What is the role of civil society in supporting local and regional authorities to reach out and engage with diaspora? For exampe, in order to foster their support in integration, social protection, promoting labour rights and fostering knowledge transfer, entrepreneurship and investment for local development? Please provide examples.

 Read about the MADE working group on diaspora and migrants in development, and its activities such as Global Diaspora Day, the purpose of which was to

Raise awareness about the positive role and contributions of diaspora and migrants towards development in their countries of origin and residence, in particular on job creation and enterprise

Showcase examples of anti-xenophobia campaigns and initiatives that address negative migrant stereotypes and xenophobia

Gather and share tools and resources that can be replicated and adapted in other contexts to effectively make an impact in these areas

The International Catholic Migration Commission (ICMC) Europe and the Forum des Organisations de Solidarité Internationale issues des Migrations (FORIM) have also developed, in collaboration with CONCORD, a new awareness-raising tool “Myth busting: Deconstructing 10 myths about migration and development” to debunk 10 common and persistent myths regarding migration, that often lead to a misplaced negativity towards migrants and diaspora. By confronting false or misleading statements with strong data, facts and migrant testimonies this publication aims to deconstruct received ideas, by tackling common misconceptions on migration in relation to poverty, development aid and the job market, among others.  

3. How can civil society and cities work together to combat xenophobia, violence and ensure social cohesion?  What good practices and lessons learned exist? Please provide examples.

Engagement in SHARE has shown that strong political leadership builds welcome, and creates sustainable refugee-receiving programmes at the regional and local level. Political representatives can play an essential role in informing local residents about plans and activities to receive refugees. Together with civil society actors, political representatives can help build public awareness of and support for refugee protection and integration. Local political support for refugee protection, for example by endorsing pledges to uphold refugee rights or through membership of relevant city networks, can further support the creation of a positive, welcoming local environment for integration.

Political authorities, such as mayors, can also importantly mobilise the sustainable engagement of mainstream service providers in local reception and integration programmes, and ensure integration is addressed throughout public policy and service provision in a manner sensitive and appropriate considering the local context.

SHARE Network discussions, exchange, research and consultation produced a definition of a ‘welcoming community’ as one that:

-              provides integration services at the local/municipal level;

-              supports the work of volunteers;

-              provides adequate reception measures and timely and appropriate housing;

-              is characterised by awareness-raising activities in all areas of society;

-              ensure social institutions and opportunities are open to refugees and asylum seekers; -               functions at all levels of local society – political authority, local civil society and individual citizens and residents.

European citizens have been formally engaged as volunteers for welcoming and integrating refugees for many years, giving their time and expertise in support of activities as varied as local orientation, employment mentoring and language-learning. They often act as a bridge between the refugee and the host society, raising awareness amongst co-citizens about the need for refugee protection and creating safe spaces for dialogue and debate. Volunteers are therefore vital in addressing community concerns with respect to social cohesion, fear of loss of cultural identity and xenophobia, which need to be discussed in a constructive and open manner.

Examples include:

Following the local elections in May 2015 and inspired by the wide support for welcoming refugees from its citizens, the municipality of Madrid, a member of the SHARE Network, is at present looking to implement several measures to increase the city’s reception and integration capacity. Following the proposal from the NGO CEAR, in September 2015 the city council adopted a declaration named “Madrid, city of asylum”. The city council also announced that it would increase services for refugees, hire additional social workers, and create new education programmes for people of all ages, to facilitate long-term integration. The city plans to introduce financial aid for people while in the asylum procedure and will coordinate a new volunteering scheme to involve and train citizens who want to offer their help to newcomers. As a symbolic act to express solidarity, the city council hung up a “Refugees welcome” banner at their city hall building, showing the city of Madrid’s commitment to welcome and support refugees.

The 'Save Me' campaign is a grassroots, city-based initiative which was founded in Munich in 2008 and now counts over 50 branches in cities and towns throughout Germany. It played a significant role in advocating for the German resettlement programme to receive 2501 Iraqi resettled refugees on an ad-hoc basis in 2009-10. 

The MADE programme has completed a pilot fund project in Morocco coordinated by the non-profit organisation Collectif des Communautés Subsahariennes au Maroc (CCSM). The aim of the project was to ensure implementation of existing protection frameworks, facilitate the integration of migrants in Morocco and raise awareness on the pormotion and protection of migrants rights. One of the main outcomes was the organisation of a Round Table for civil society and local governments to discuss migrant’s issues in Morocco in order to improve their lives and provide trainings with officals of local authorities focused on ways to improve the integration of these migrants stranded at the border with Spain. For more informatino visit the website, inluding a report of the different meetings with recommendations: http://madenetwork.org/pilot-fund-morocco

4. Both cities and civil society actors tend to be side-lined from national and international policy- making pertaining to migration and refugee protection, despite the fact that such policies often have an impact at the local level. This can be due to a lack of support, voice and consultation at national level, as well as a lack competencies, means and/or political will. What obstacles to collaboration have you encountered through your work? How can cities and civil society work together to overcome these? Please provide examples.

At the international level, civil society finds itself in an increasingly shrinking space, sometimes with limited access to important discussions around migration and refugee protection etc, and other times with access to but very limited space to speak or interact in these formal spaces.

The SHARE Network was established in recognition of the crucial role that regional and local authorities play in welcoming and supporting refugees in Europe. Refugee resettlement is characterised by a complex division of competences and responsibilities between national, regional and local governments. With respect to the national level of governments, they have the competence to decide who to admit to their territory. Regardless of national governments’ competencies, regional and local authorities play a central role both in offering reception and integration support once refugees have arrived, and in responding to wider challenges of building welcoming and inclusive communities at the local level. The ongoing success of national programmes to receive refugees thus depends on the commitment, ability and partnerships of local and regional authorities.

The EU influences the relationship between national and local governments, by means of offering central governments financing for setting up resettlement programmes. It’s then up to the national government to decide how to allocate these funds as between local authorities receiving resettled refugees. For local programmes to be effective, there must be transparency about what financial resources are available and how they can be used. Furthermore, access to allocated funding must be timely and straightforward.

SHARE learning shows that including regional and local actors as full partners when deciding priorities for how resources are allocated by national authorities to local programmes, promotes strong partnerships and a sense of 'ownership' of the programme by local actors. Allocation of funds will respond better to real needs on the ground and be more efficient if local actors are involved in priority setting and programme definition.

Examples include:

The GFMD Government Days Roundtables. Civil society is still not permitted to participate in these roundtables. Over 150 civil society organisations signed a letter to the current GFMD government chair, Bangladesh, asking for civil society to be invited to the Government roundtables, following the model adopted by governments during the High-level Dialogue on Migration and Development in 2013.

The UNGA High-level Summit for Refugees and Migrants, September 2016. While civil society organisations have access to the Summit, seven CSOs have been blocked by Member States from participating. Civil society has found the process for objections (detailed in paragraph 6 of the Resolution on modalities for the Summit [A/RES/70/290]) to be lacking transparency, and in general feels that future considerations and agreements on modalities should facilitate open civil society participation and transparency.  

5. What are the key success factors to ensuring a trusting and functional multi-stakeholder partnership among civil society actors and cities in their efforts to work together to harness the development potential of migration?  What obstacles can hinder such partnerships? How can these be overcome? Please provide examples.

Civil society is often not invited to  the table of discussion, or its skills and expertise are not called upon. Increased civil society interaction and engagement would serve to increase the trust and efficacy of the multi-stakeholder partnership between civil society and cities.

Migrant and diaspora communities represent a significant proportion of any large city’s population. Civil society (which often consists of as well as representing migrants, refugees and members of the diaspora) often have a strong connection to and understanding of these communities, their interests and skill-sets as well as the challenges they face, be they economic, bureaucratic or social, and are a good starting point for cities to engage with and support these communities.

SHARE has demonstrated that integration is much more successful if there is a multi-stakeholder engagement in refugee reception and welcome, and an innovative and creative approach to engaging new partners. Integration at the local level can be expanded and improved if a broad set of local stakeholders - such as faith-based organisations, migrant associations, employers and universities – are able to make a contribution each respecting their own roles and mandates.

Planning and coordinating reception is more effective when undertaken by a core partnership of local actors responsible for specific elements of reception and orientation such as housing, healthcare, education and registration for welfare benefits. Partnerships can enhance reception services by:

agreeing mutual roles/responsibilities based on refugees' reception and orientation needs;

pre-planning reception tasks and activities before refugees arrive;

allocating resources and monitoring the implementation of planned tasks during the post-arrival period; and

providing a mechanism for joint problem-solving and a forum for local actors to jointly evaluate and improve their practices.

At the local level, conditions for refugee integration can be improved if local residents are well-informed about global refugee needs and how their local programme contributes to wider European and global efforts. Local political and civil society actors can provide information to build public awareness and support, and to promote citizen involvement in supporting reception and integration. Successful programmes will be flexible in engaging mainstream service providers and/or extending casework support for refugees with longer-term integration support needs. 

Involving grassroots, citizen-led initiatives in refugee integration promotes welcome, builds trust and leads to more sustainable local programmes. Including grassroots initiatives in local programmes can significantly expand the 'integration offer' for refugees in their new neighbourhoods, building a welcoming local environment and providing refugees and local residents with opportunities to meet one another. To ensure sustainable and effective programmes, citizen-led activities to support resettled/relocated refugees should always be complementary to mainstream services delivered by core partners.

6. These past few years, we have numerous incidences of countries experiencing conflict or natural disasters where migrants living, working, studying, traveling or transiting in these countries have been disproportionately affected.  What is the role of civil society in preparing for and responding to the needs of migrants in countries experiencing crises? Give examples of how civil society helped in saving lives, protecting migrants’ rights and dignity and alleviating their suffering especially at the height of these crises. 

The MICIC Guidelines identified three stages of a crisis: pre-crisis, emergency and post-crisis phases. At each stage civil society has an important role in increasing migrants’ resilience to, preparedness for and response to crises, whatever the form the crisis might take.

In order to have proper early warning and contingency plans, it is important to have accurate data and information on who is in the country, including on migrant communities. However, there is a risk that this information is collected and used for other purposes, such as return. In other cases migrants simply are distrustful of authorities, do not know how to approach them, have language barriers or their own migration status makes them cautious about offering details about themselves.

In cases where sensitive information about migrants is being handled, civil society can act as a ’buffer’ or safeguard of that information until such a time as it is needed for an emergency response. In general, civil society can act as ‘a bridge of many blocks’ between authorities and migrant communities – culture, language, bureaucracy and other obstacles that are challenging in normal times can become far worse in times of emergency. It is important to build trust and to have safety information available and accessible. Civil society – often consisting of as well as representing migrants, refugees and members of the diaspora – can fill these gaps.

Civil society and/or migrant representatives themselves should be part of developing any contingency or emergency plans, and often also have the technical skills, resources and connections to migrant networks to assist in times of crisis.

Mobile technology initiatives can be an important information-sharing/gathering tool in times of emergency. One example is MigCall, which is a phone app to connect Indian migrants with authorities and NGOs during times of distress

Mobile Consulates in South America have been used as a strategy to facilitate access to documentation, regularization and procedures of migrants.

For more information about the six regional Migrants in Countries in Crisis civil society consultations please see MADE Network website

This contribution was provided by, Dr. Martin Russell and Kingsley Aikins, Diaspora Matters

Diasporas and Localized Development: Prioritizing Place

Introduction

As the focus on the relationship between migration and development has strengthened over the past decade or so, the relative correlation between diaspora and development has witnessed a slower rate of investigation and analysis. However, since the inaugural Global Diaspora Forum in 2011, the level of attention on the relationship between diaspora and development has begun to build momentum. In recent years, a plethora of fora, consultations and research has emerged to uncover new potentials on this relationship and build new areas of potentially positive developmental impacts from diaspora engagement.

One of these areas is local development, in particular city development. At a conceptual level, diaspora lends itself well to inclusion within the city, localized development narratives that are currently advancing due to the trends outlined in the call for consultation ahead of this forum. Diaspora is a concept of belonging and affinity where locales of identification can be plural, adaptive and nurtured. One of the founding lessons emanating from diaspora work in recent times is that it is not necessarily about country but about place. In this instance, the importance of the local is elevated. Likewise, and in the spirit of this call for consultation from civil society, the pluralized connections and belongings that define diaspora allow for the sharing of experience, knowledge and ideas. Diaspora engagement is non-competitive. Somebody who wants to help Lisbon will probably not want to help London. Therefore, we can share our practices and ideas openly and, in turn, strive to ensure developmental impact globally.

In this short piece, we offer some global examples that address some of the key questions posed in the consultation. These include the need for an inclusive, coherent policy landscape that can ensure a role for localized development in national policy discourse and practice relating to diaspora engagement. Secondly, we offer examples of current exemplars in city development through diaspora engagement and offer suggestions around cross-sector re-invention to progress such work (as a vehicle to ensure delivery of the public-private partnership model in developmental practice). Finally, we offer some insight into how diaspora engagement – particularly affinity diaspora – can play an integral role in addressing the socio-cultural demands allocated by the recent migratory phenomenon and advocate for a more nuanced, responsible discussion on such issues. This short contribution concludes with information on access to resources that we have previously developed and information on upcoming content from our organization

Policy Consideration

The Policy: Diaspora Engagement Models

A key aim of this forum is to explore ways in which the policy landscape shaping diaspora engagement can be conducive to localized forms of development. As noted above, a key entry point to this debate is to ensure that diaspora is conceptualized as being about place rather than country. For example, from the Irish diaspora engagement experience, it is quite clear that a strong cohort of our diaspora communities feel their binds of affection towards their home county, town or city. Represented most clearly in our national sports organization, the Gaelic Athletics Association, these diasporic affinities are clear. A more direct example has been in the work of one of Ireland’s most innovative job creation platforms that engages the Irish diaspora – Connect Ireland. The success of Connect Ireland – which is a diaspora direct investment platform focused on job creation via a referral and reward methodology – has resulted in the creation of jobs across the island of Ireland and diaspora communities have repeatedly displayed a desire to help their local area under the rubric of a nation-wide agenda.

This has important implications at a policy level. In recent times, spurred by strong donor support and the facilitative role of organizations such as the International Organization for Migration and the International Centre for Migration Policy Development, there has been a noteworthy rise in the desire and delivery of national diaspora policies. The inclusion of a local development component in such policies has been minimal to date but the internal migratory trends within many developing regions illustrates the need for such localized perspectives. In many instances, internal migration towards urban centres adds an additional layer to the increasing pressures on urban centres in the migration, diaspora and development discussion. Therefore, developmental needs – whether they be social, cultural, or economic – in the localized context are often heightened due to the migratory process. As such, responsible national diaspora policies should include clear policy coherence with the respective localized governance systems to ensure inclusion in the national policy. Excellent examples of this do exist and it is positioned upon a realization that it is imperative to view the composition of your diaspora engagement approach – including the role of policy – as a form of a diaspora engagement model.

                Example: Emigrant Support Programme and Local Diaspora Engagement Fund, Ireland

The Irish diaspora engagement model has been witnessing growing interest as a leader in diaspora engagement. In recent years, we have been delighted to host various study trips on diaspora engagement with government and civil society actors from countries such as Armenia, Georgia, Malawi, Moldova and elsewhere. We have also travelled abroad to share the Irish story in areas such as Africa, Australia, Canada, the Caribbean, Europe, Latin America, United Kingdom and United States. However, whilst Ireland’s diaspora engagement is deep-rooted historically, the policy dimensions of diaspora engagement are relatively young. The Irish-Abroad Unit of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Ireland was set up in 2004. The first ever Irish diaspora policy was launched in 2015 and the first ever appointment of a Minister of State with responsibility of the Irish Diaspora occurred in recent years.

However, the policy landscape in Ireland has quickly attuned to the needs of localized development within diaspora engagement. One of the flagship policy instruments in Irish diaspora engagement, The Emigrant Support Programme (ESP), has included clear support of civil society active in local development. The defining feature of the ESP is its role in helping vulnerable members of the Irish diaspora. It provides significant financial support to a range of global diaspora organizations and communities who engage with the Irish diaspora abroad. The policy also allocates funding for a range of Irish based organizations who are actively engaging the diaspora, such as the GAA mentioned above.

In addition to this, the first ever national diaspora policy – The Global Irish policy – developed and launched a Local Diaspora Engagement Fund which provided funding for local organizations in Ireland to develop diaspora engagement initiatives – such as local strategies, conferences, and networks – to help with localized development. The first round of funding was allocated in 2016 and has seen the creation and development of diaspora engagement in regional towns and counties across Ireland in areas such as Cavan, Cork, Donegal, Limerick, Mayo and so forth. This fund is a prime example of how the local and national policy landscape can be embedded coherently in order to effect positive developmental impact across local/national policy agenda. For example, the critical national needs of Ireland such as job creation, access to international markets, investment promotion emanating from the global financial crisis are all catered for in the localized projects supported by the fund. The fund is based upon that critical understanding of place not nation defining 21st century diaspora engagement.

The City Consideration

The City and Alumni Component: The Case of Copenhagen Goodwill Ambassadors

A key component of this forum centres around issues of leadership and effective civil society engagement. To date, there has been a relatively poor record in instrumentalizing the core delivery methodology of recent discussion in these areas – public-private partnership. In many ways, these forms of partnerships represent a logical approach given the budgetary demands within global developmental agenda. Put simply, private sector support and a wider use of private wealth for developmental purpose will be needed to deliver the SDGs. However, as we have struggled to operationalize public-private partnerships within migration and development to the necessary level, we need to re-envisage our approach. In order to build trust to nurture public-private partnership, we need to reinforce our proof of concept phase. Therefore, we are now in a phase on another 3P’s – policies, programmes and projects. Making this transition successful will help scale public-private partnerships. Therefore, we will offer an example of an excellent project that has brought together a cross-sectoral public-private partnership and also offer an existing model of knowledge that can have beneficial developmental impact in the localized realm.

                Case Study – The Copenhagen Goodwill Ambassadors

A leading light in the developmental impact of diaspora engagement in the cities context is the Copenhagen Goodwill Ambassadors. In a visionary mindset, the programme offers an important definitional departure in terms of diaspora. The definitional parameters of diaspora engagement are regularly bound too rigidly to represent the potential areas of influence for diaspora engagement. For example, the Copenhagen Goodwill Ambassadors offers a concept of city diasporas. We need to critically (and continuously) revisit our definition of diaspora. The pace of change in the networked 21st century, shaped by communication and technological innovation, is putting new pressure on our modes of knowledge on diaspora. There remains larger research and critical enquiry gaps on the topic that need addressing.

The Copenhagen Goodwill Ambassadors programme is a network of professional Danish diaspora members who help to promote Copenhagen abroad. The network has representatives across various sectors and has partnered with various agencies within Copenhagen who have a role in promoting Copenhagen abroad in areas such as culture, education, and trade. The network is an exemplar in illustrating how to shape positive impact from the smart power offered by diaspora communities. Such power, broadly defined as people to people networks, also deepens the understanding of the diaspora capital active in global, networked markets. The relationship between diaspora and development has repeatedly been dominated by the remittance landscape yet this viewpoint is reductionist and regressive. Diaspora communities and networks contain various forms of connections, capitals and contributions that are beyond the financial. In fact, the power of referral is a key component of the success of the Copenhagen example. Diaspora engagement, in particular diaspora direct investment, contains many stories where connections, ideas and referrals provide much more developmental impact than financial investment. This indicates the need to move diaspora engagement away from a transactional mindset to a relationship mindset.

                City Diasporas: Alumni, Alumni, Alumni

As part of any call for consultation or forum, it is imperative to try share best practice and offer some new ideas in a topic. Therefore, developing from the city diaspora concept above, we contend that a core area of knowledge for diaspora engagement on a localized level remains in the area of alumni engagement. Alumni, like diaspora, has been undergoing some interesting re-invention in recent times. Once the sole occupancy of universities, alumni has emerged as a key consideration in other sectors such as the corporate world (McKinsey remains the forerunner in Corporate Alumni engagement). We contend that diaspora and alumni are very close relatives. For example, both include the need to develop strategies, prospects, relationships, build affiliation and engagement access points. Therefore, in terms of localized development, there are existing bodies of knowledge and expertise that are active within local regions that can help on diaspora engagement. Universities, chambers of commerce, companies, sporting organizations and other localized stakeholders all have their respective diasporas. As a result, the ability to build effective networks and partnerships across these sectors will help determine likelihood of success for diaspora engagement in the localized context.

The Affinity Consideration

Affinity Diaspora: Co-operation not Conflict

Diaspora engagement is more often than not viewed within a singular lens which focuses upon the relationship between a given state or entity with its diaspora that has left, for example the Indian government engaging the India diaspora or Malawian government engaging the Malawi diaspora. However, within the city context and in line with aims of this forum, diaspora communities within a region are also important contributors to local cultures, economies, and well-being. These affinity diasporas (diaspora communities residing with a region with an affinity for that region) are integral to localized development.

The potential of affinity diaspora to date has not been helped by the ongoing negativity around the migration issue. In many ways, these negativities have enhanced a culture of conflict on migration rather than advancing the spirit of co-operation. Put frankly, it has reduced the migration debate to a zero-sum endgame that has resulted in a language of crisis rather than collaboration.

Apart from extensive research showing the positive impacts of migration, the mindset change needed on the topic displays the leadership challenges ahead in the field and addressed in this forum. Cultural, ideological and political sensitivities around migration are propping up emerging leadership challenges in the localized context. Therefore, it is imperative that we collectively – researchers, donors, local leaders, international organizations, and civil society – provide new avenues of knowledge to move beyond regressive, ill-informed and populist interpretations of the migratory phenomenon. Affinity diasporas have many roles to play in this regard but, in this piece, we will focus on one key issue – cultural and integrative help. Of course, affinity diasporas are not the sole area of diaspora engagement relative to these issues. For example, diaspora philanthropy remains an under-utilized change agent of social, cultural and economic development at a local level.

Cultural and Integrative Help

As noted in the outline of this forum, issues around integration have reduced the potential developmental impact of diaspora engagement in the localized context. However, existing affinity diaspora within a region can play an integral role around cultural understanding/appreciation and wider socio-cultural integration of newer migrants and diaspora communities. They can provide educational services to newer arrivals in areas such as housing and schooling. They can also provide platforms through which integrative cultural programmes can be nurtured. It should be encouraged that leadership at a local and national level equip such programmes with the relative human and financial resources as a mechanism of cultural diplomacy. In the longer term, it will help build stronger affinities for your region which, if purposefully mobilized across sectors, will enhance your global competitiveness. Given the fluidity of ideas and people in the networked age that we now live in, every city, region, organization will need its global friends to remain relevant and competitive. Affinity diasporas are an integral part of this process.

A prime example of the potential of such diaspora engagement for localized development are students and the wider global war for talent. As the global education sector becomes more mobile, cities with strong records of attracting international students are creating innovative ways to ensure a connectedness with these affinity diaspora as their career progresses. An excellent example of this was the recent GREAT Ambassadors Scheme at the University of Sheffield which was supported by UKTI (United Kingdom Trade and Investment). The programme awarded career development opportunities for Chinese students who graduated at the University of Sheffield to work with UK based companies active in or seeking to enter the Chinese market. This form of commercial and cultural diplomacy has begun to become a defining feature of diaspora engagement. Other previous examples include the African Diaspora Marketplace which was run by USAID, Western Union, Deloitte and other partners. These initiatives operate beyond the singular lens that defines much of diaspora engagement and works towards integration of diaspora communities through support of areas such as entrepreneurship, investment, job creation and career advancement.

Conclusion

In this short offering, we have attempted to share some strong examples of diaspora engagement for local development along with positioning such initiatives within wider policy and leadership discussions. It is clear that diaspora engagement is slowly becoming mainstream. To date, it has been a secondary discussion on most global agenda so we are encouraged by the endeavour and focus of this forum in heightening its role. The rise of interest on diaspora will, of course, bring challenges along with new emphasis. Arguably, our depth of knowledge on diaspora in the 21st century is not where it needs to be. The continuing lack of innovative research in the discipline of diaspora studies reflects this. Moreover, encouraging policymakers, practitioners, donors and civil society to further their studies on diaspora remains a significant challenge to overcome.

Yet, as mentioned in the introduction, the remarkable and defining characteristic of diaspora engagement is that it is non-competitive. Therefore, let’s continue to share our knowledge and ideas, help establish diaspora engagement as a stand-alone professionalized sector and deepen our appreciation of the positive impact diaspora has on development. As such, the future of diaspora engagement will be defined by the critical skillset that has shaped its past and present – the ability to network.

Let’s get to work, together.

About Diaspora Matters

Diaspora Matters is a global consultancy company based in Dublin, Ireland. To date, it has worked globally with a range of private and public sector clients to develop strategies and policies to engage with diasporas. It published the Global Diaspora Strategies Toolkit in 2011. It also provides various advisory, research and training services. It has developed a series of new training courses including the Networking Training Programme and Philanthropy and Fundraising Programme.

Later in 2016, it will launch its Diaspora Engagement Model which will include a series of case studies of successful diaspora engagement, extensive training and digital content on diaspora engagement, examples of 30 forms of diaspora capital, a survey of 100 global diaspora engagement initiatives and a bibliography of over 1,500 books, articles and other content on diaspora engagement.

 

This contribution was provided by: Asesor Empresarial ADEL Morazán, OXFAM 

1.       ¿Cómo puede la sociedad civil brindar apoyo a las ciudades para asegurar la inclusión y la protección de los migrantes y refugiados vulnerables, así como fomentar la resiliencia y el desarrollo? ¿Qué buenas prácticas y aprendizajes pueden ser identificados?

Un punto de partida es la generación de conciencia y sensibilizar sobre los impactos, daños, riesgos que genera la migración de forma ilegal, por otro lado se pueden garantizar desde las municipalidades programas y/o proyectos de reinserción para las personas retornadas estos proyectos y/o programas deben ir orientados a la generación de oportunidades laborales o productivas (auto-empleo), considerando los capitales humano, social, afectivo y financiero con el que cuentan los migrantes además se debe optar por una estrategia es el apoyo psicosocial a las personas retornadas. 

2.     ¿Cómo puede la sociedad civil apoyar a las autoridades locales y regionales para involucrar a la diáspora en el fomento de la integración, la protección social, la promoción de los derechos laborales y la transmisión de conocimiento, así como en el apoyo a los emprendedores y en la inversión para el desarrollo local? Por favor, incluya algunos ejemplos.

La sociedad civil puede organizar comités locales, redes ciudadanas, movimientos sociales, etc. involucrando a líderes comunitarios, jóvenes y adultos retornados, quienes tienen pleno conocimiento de las situaciones, condiciones y necesidades que afrontan las personas migrantes retornadas, a través  de estas alianzas entre sociedad civil, migrantes y autoridades locales se pueden organizar eventos en los lugares de residencia de la diáspora, para dar a conocer las realidades que enfrentan las personas retornadas, de esta forma se puede sensibilizar y crear conciencia a la diáspora y canalizar un flujo de fondos que pueden ser manejados en conjunto con los actores locales y las autoridades en la ejecución de planes, proyectos y programas.

3.      ¿Cómo pueden la sociedad civil y las ciudades trabajar conjuntamente para combatir la xenofobia y la violencia y asegurar la cohesión social? ¿Cuáles son las buenas prácticas y aprendizajes ya existentes? Por favor, aporte algunos ejemplos. 

La educación es una de las principales herramientas que permiten el traslado de conocimientos, la difusión de información respecto a la migración sus causas, efectos, daños, etc. Mediante foros, conversatorios, ruedas de prensa, comunicado, etc. Pueden ser organizados por personas que fueron y son víctimas de estas realidades (migración), incentivar en el respeto al que piensa diferente, reunir y consolidar información relevante al respecto, denunciar todo tipo de actividades enmarcadas a los abusos contra los migrantes, y la concientización son actividades que se pueden garantizar desde las organizaciones formadas por personas de la sociedad civil en conjunto con las municipalidades.       

4.    Tanto las ciudades como la sociedad civil suelen quedar apartadas de las decisiones políticas tomadas a nivel nacional e internacional en relación a la protección de los migrantes y refugiados, aunque estas tengan normalmente un impacto en el ámbito local. Esto puede deberse a una falta de apoyo por parte de las instancias nacionales, que se traduce en un déficit de consulta y escucha de las voces locales. También puede ser el fruto de una falta de competencias y recursos o de interés político. ¿Con qué obstáculos se ha encontrado para establecer una colaboración? ¿Cómo pueden las ciudades y la sociedad civil trabajar conjuntamente para superarlos? Por favor, no dude en incluir algunos ejemplos.  

La falta de información que se tiene a nivel local es uno de los factores que impiden o dificultan el accionar a favor de los migrantes, no se tienen datos del número de migrantes que salen de las localidades, números de personas retornadas, desaparecidos, etc.

La elaboración de diagnósticos que abarquen de forma integral todos los datos relacionados al fenómeno de la migración es un punto de partida, teniendo estos diagnósticos, se pueden socializar y exponer las realidades que se afrontan los migrantes y refugiados en los territorios, con estas socialización se difunde información y se crea conciencia y redes de apoyos que contribuyen o trabajen en pro de los migrantes y retornados.          

5.      ¿Cuáles son los factores clave que permiten establecer una colaboración entre múltiples actores, provenientes de la sociedad civil y del gobierno de las ciudades, basada en la confianza y que contribuya adecuadamente al potencial de la migración para el desarrollo? ¿Qué obstáculos pueden darse? ¿Cómo pueden ser superados? Por favor, incluya algunos ejemplos.

Uno de los factores importantes a considerar para lograr la colaboración, es la organización, al organizar un equipo de trabajo que involucre a actores locales y autoridades, las problemáticas pueden ser tratadas desde distinta áreas (multidisciplinario) y pueden ser vistos desde distintas perspectivas, la conformación de alianzas, redes civiles y ciudadanas permiten tener una dimensión más amplia de ejecución.

Al aprovecha las relaciones que tienen  los gobiernos locales,  y articularlo con el conocimiento y experiencias de la sociedad civil se logran acuerdos sustentados y validados para la ejecución de propuestas.

6.       En los últimos años, los migrantes viviendo, trabajando, estudiando, viajando o transitando por países que estaban experimentando un conflicto o un desastre natural, se han visto afectados de manera desproporcionada. ¿Cuál es el papel de la sociedad civil ante esta situación y cómo puede responder a las necesidades de los migrantes en países en crisis? Por favor, aporte ejemplos de cómo la sociedad civil ha contribuido a salvar vidas, proteger la dignidad y los derechos de los migrantes o aliviar su sufrimiento, especialmente en el apogeo de estas crisis.  

Las sociedad civil actúa de forma activa en respuesta de los migrantes residentes o que están en tránsito por los países que se ven afectados por crisis políticas, sociales, o naturales; se crean redes alianzas comités, etc. Formadas por distintos actores que aglutinan investigadores, líderes comunitarios, líderes sociales, iglesias, etc. que están comprometidos con el fenómeno migratorio.

Cada organización aporta a la causa de los migrantes desde sus capacidades y áreas de conocimiento, ejemplo de ellas la red internacional de migración y desarrollo, alianza américas, águilas del desierto, casa de los migrantes, etc.

 

The following are highlights/key points that emerged during the discussion of Philippines CSOs

Question 1: How can civil society support cities to ensure the inclusion and protection of vulnerable migrants and refugees for enhanced resilience and development? What good practices and lessons learned exist?

Question 3: How can civil society and cities work together to combat xenophobia, violence and ensure social cohesion?  What good practices and lessons learned exist? Please provide examples.

Some source countries of migrants such as the Philippines, need to review their own immigration policies, particularly those that restrict the entry, inclusion, integration and protection of migrants, students, businessmen, etc. There is also a need to evaluate the rules, policies and processes in acquiring permanent residency or citizenship; in the Philippines, the process is restrictive compared to other countries. The review is envisioned to streamline process of getting visas and work contracts and reduce costs, among others, in order to prevent extortion and corruption.

In order to validate and rationalize fees and streamline processes, CSOs especially those doing research, can assist in the review and analysis of procedures and policies in comparison with other countries.

There are select localities that are socially inclusive to foreign nationals. An example of this is the presence of Indonesian schools in the southern part of the Philippines such as Davao, South Cotabato, and Saranggani. There are also Philippine schools located in the Middle East, Greece, China, etc. that cater to the needs of children of migrants in the area.
Some source countries of migrants, however, have the tendency to have discriminating mindset, attitude and response to select foreign workers in their own territories while friendlier to others. For example, the Filipinos’ attitude (and embodied as well in some Filipino practices related to tourism, business, education and employment) towards Caucasians is accommodating compared to Asians and Africans. As signatory to international conventions, home countries should also be ready for the reciprocal nature of the agreements – that whatever is being demanded from the host countries of migrants such as protection and equal treatment and access to services – should also be available to foreign workers. 
Same attitude is also being observed in the case of internally displaced people (internal migrants). Residents of big or highly urbanized cities and metropolis discriminate against people from the barrios.
For some academic institutions, it is difficult for them to hire or retain foreign faculties due to limited benefits and incentives, and absence of tenure.
There is also a need to address the misconception that all foreign investments in a certain are overtaking local businesses, that the foreigners are involved in trafficking in persons or mail-order brides, etc.
The suggestion is to involve the groups/associations of foreign residents in a country/city to be engaged in local dialogue in home countries. For example, in the 3GMF, it is proposed to invite the associations of Japanese, Koreans, etc. who are based in the Philippines so that they can also contribute to the discussion.
There is a need to for more studies, data and mapping of programs and services from local and regional areas, led by the government, for foreign workers. This inventory can provide more information to migrants and to the community. CSOs involve in research can assist while those involve in advocacy can help in community education.
In areas where there are violations of migrants’ rights and contracts or where there are abuses and discrimination, CSOs should be the voice in bringing the concerns to local authorities. Some migrants are hesitant to bring matters to employers or local authorities due to fear, dismissal from work and other negative repercussions. In most cases, local authorities do not provide the necessary protection to the migrants/workers as this would antagonize their interests and relationship with employers and companies. An example is the case of Filipino fishermen arrested and imprisoned in foreign territories. Had it not been to the constant demand from trade unions, the fishermen will not be released. It is critical for CSOs and unions to constantly demand and bring to the attention of local governments and employers the need to ensure decent work for and protection of migrants, including the need to pay for the repatriation of those illegally displaced or abused.
CSOs also play a role in helping change the perception of local authorities and sensitize the community to be more socially inclusive, and impress upon LGUs that migration is local process. The CSOs can help advocate for the establishment of more local committees on M&D – a multi stakeholder partnership and approach, as in the case of the Philippines, involving national and local governments, CSOs, private sector, academe and migrants/families.  This process enables these various actors to interact, plan and collaborate with one another on local M&D policies, programmes and processes.

 

Question 2. What is the role of civil society in supporting local and regional authorities to reach out and engage with diaspora? For example, in order to foster their support in integration, social protection, promoting labour rights and fostering knowledge transfer, entrepreneurship and investment for local development? Please provide examples.

Question 4: Both cities and civil society actors tend to be side-lined from national and international policy-making pertaining to migration and refugee protection, despite the fact that such policies often have an impact at the local level. This can be due to a lack of support, voice and consultation at national level, as well as lack of competencies, means and/or political will. What obstacles to collaboration have you encountered through your work? How can cities and civil society work together to overcome these? Please provide examples.

Question 5: What are the key success factors to ensuring a trusting and functional multi-stakeholder partnership among civil society actors and cities in their efforts to work together to harness the development potential of migration?  What obstacles can hinder such partnerships? How can these be overcome? Please provide examples.

It is also important to include migrants/families/organizations in local development council (LDCs) as this is one good mechanism for CSOs and migrants to articulate their M&D concerns with local authorities. LGUs require for CSOs’ legal status for purposes of accreditation and further engagement. The CSOs being on the ground, can easily involve barangay captains or village leaders.
The concern is on the role of the CSOs – should they be more involved in training LGU or more on organizing? There are various programs where CSOs are involved in both, especially through related projects. It is important for CSOs to help in sensitizing LGUs on the importance of migrants in their LDCs. In so doing, CSOs are also key actors in organizing the migrants and their families so that they can assert better their needs, concerns and contributions in LGU processes. For this purpose, a model in organizing migrants should be developed. While SENTRO was able to successfully organize migrants in select countries such as Hong Kong and Malaysia, they also encounter challenges and difficulties.

Relative to the above, in the Philippines, there is a need to revisit the creation of OFW family circles – that it should not be quantity-driven.

The CSOs can also assist in advocating to relevant national and regional government agencies revision of laws, policies and mechanisms to make them friendlier and responsive to the needs of migrants. An example of this is the restrictive provisions of the Cooperative Development Law and Securities and Exchange Commission policies on the membership of migrants residing overseas in cooperatives and in registering migrants’ organizations overseas, respectively.  
The membership of migrants in local councils of home countries also occur in host countries. Examples of good practices are:

In Barcelona, a group of church-based Filipino migrant leaders collaborated with the City of Barcelona in asserting better their rights and contribution to host countries
In Hong Kong, the migrant representative was able to secure seat in local legislative council in addition to HK government’s recognition of their labor union and cooperative
In Rome, a Filipino secured a seat in the Rome’s City Counsel for Asian Migrants
In Athens, a Filipino migrant organization’s representation was ensured in global conference against racism

CSOs/migrant groups can help bridge the connection between their local governments and host countries/communities, or between their local governments and their respective diplomatic and consular officers overseas. During the celebration of the centennial of Filipino migration in the US, various sister-city and twinning arrangement between Philippine and foreign local authorities on areas such as trade, education and cultural exchanges, facilitated by the CSOs and migrant groups. The Filipino community in France and Sao Paolo, Brazil (despite small number of Filipino migrants in the area; Sao Paola being recognized as most migrant-friendly city during the World Social Forum on Migration in July 2016) are in pursuit of the same arrangements.

CSOs can also request from the diplomatic posts a listing/directory of the various migrant associations/trade unions for sharing with the LGUs to establish link, network and collaboration.

CSOs can help lobby with national governments to issue necessary circulars or issuances to support local government especially in addressing budget requirements. CSOs can also conduct information drive and capacity building to LGUs particularly on migration related laws, policies and programmes, etc.
Trade unions are generally not in working relations with some local governments due to conflict of interests. The key issue is balancing the economic gains in the locality and protection of its migrant population if it conflicts with the vested interest of some local officials and the private sector. The migrant community, their issues and the potential collaboration can be the entry point in the dialogue among the LGUs and trade unions?

 

Question 6: These past few years, we have numerous incidences of countries experiencing conflict or natural disasters where migrants living, working, studying, traveling or transiting in these countries have been disproportionately affected.  What is the role of civil society in preparing for and responding to the needs of migrants in countries experiencing crises? Give examples of how civil society helped in saving lives, protecting migrants’ rights and dignity and alleviating their suffering especially at the height of these crises.

Both national and local governments as well as CSOs should work together to address the case of “Halaw”, the group of Filipinos considered to be undocumented in Sabah. Halaw is a Bahasa-Malay word which means driven away and is used to tag Filipinos who cross-border between the Philippines’ southern region and Sabah due to geographical proximity. They are, estimated to be about 30,000, considered irregular in Sabah due to lack of working permits or visas but due to the political and territorial claim of the Philippines over Sabah, there is supposed to be no need for the same. The issue is that the LGUs are burdened in providing for the needs (emergency response, shelter, food, etc.) when they are repatriated, draining their meager resources and demanding too much from their personnel, some of whom are not ready to respond to such emergencies. Since not all of the people/halaw are coming from southern part of the Philippines but from other localities, these LGUs should also share in the responsibility in providing for the needs of their constituencies.
One strategy is to develop a database of migrants from a certain locality for easy monitoring of whereabouts and situation during crises. An example is that of Cuenca OFW federation in Batangas, with the help of a CSO (Atikha) – the group has an officer per barangay/village, has monthly meetings, has a representative in the Cuenca Local Development Council, their trainings are cascaded until barangay or village level; and in the process of doing these activities, they were able to establish data of migrants and the families become the direct point of contact in times of crises.
The CSOs/trade unions/migrants/organizations should partner with Embassies/Consulates to develop contingency or crises plans, in consultation with local authorities (both host and home areas) so that the local context and situation will be included in the preparation and implementation of such plans.
LGUs should set-up emergency numbers, financial assistance/livelihood programmes, and mapping and tracing of whereabouts of migrants through family/barangay/village coordinators.
To help in the reintegration, both national and local governments should have inventory of skills of returning migrants to help LGUs program jobs, employment and other reintegration strategies, with the help of trade unions. In so doing, national and local governments should treat equally and provide equal opportunities to all kinds of migrant returnees. There are reported cases, as in the Philippines, that those who were repatriated from Malaysia were not given same privileges as those coming from Lebanon or Saudi Arabia. CSOs can help bring to the attention of the national and local authorities these incidents to address them.
Migrant associations can also help raise funds to support repatriated migrants due to crises as in the case of a seafarers’ cooperative in Almeria, Biliran in the Philippines.

 

Other potential partnerships between LGUs and CSOs

CSO can input into the proposed 2017 census on migration to be conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority.
CSOs can input and provide capacity building on the localization of SDGs, particularly the specific M&D related provisions.
Additional policy research, information, etc. arising from the national and local governments and CSO collaboration can input into the reports required under the Convention on Migrant Workers.

The following unput was provided by FOYER DON BOSCO PORTO-NOVO:

Questions proposées pour la discussion 

1.       1.      Comment la société civile peut-elle soutenir les villes pour assurer l’inclusion et la protection des migrants et refugiés vulnérables afin de renforcer leur résilience et le développement ? Quelles bonnes pratiques et leçons apprises peuvent être identifiées ? 

 

Dans le but d’aider les villes pour assurer l’inclusion et la protection des migrants et refugiés vulnérables afin de renforcer leur résilience et le développement, la société civile peut:

-      créer ou redynamiser les groupes ou associations de migrants et des refugiés

-      développer et mettre en œuvre des projets spécifiques à l’endroit des migrants et des refugiés

-      sponsoriser les initiatives des migrants et des refugiés

-      défendre les droits et les priorités des migrants et des refugiés

-      promouvoir et impliquer les associations de migrants dans des initiatives communautaires

-      Favoriser l’accès aux services sociaux de base aux migrants

-      créer un environnement favorable aux migrants à travers leur autonomisation et leur intégration

-      promouvoir la participation à la vie politique et l’implication des organisations des migrants et des refugiés dans l’élaboration des politiques.

-      autonomiser les migrants en incluant leurs voix dans les processus politiques (les séances de prise de décisions).

-      Mettre en place au niveau des mairies un système de protection des migrants.

2.       2.      Quel est le rôle de la société civile dans son soutien aux autorités locales et régionales pour atteindre et engager le dialogue avec la diaspora ? Par exemple, afin d’encourager leurs soutiens à l’intégration, la protection sociale, la promotion des droits du travail, le transfert de connaissance, l’entrepreneuriat et l’investissement dans le développement local. Merci de fournir des exemples.

-      La société civile peut jouer un rôle de médiation entre les migrants ou association de migrants et les communautés d’accueil

-      Jouer un rôle de vecteurs pour que les actions de la diaspora soient en conformités avec la politique nationale

-      Organiser des séances de renforcement des capacités à l’endroit des autorités des villes

-      Sensibiliser et ou informer les différentes

 

3.       3.      Comment la Société Civile et les Villes peuvent-elles travailler ensemble pour combattre la xénophobie et la violence afin de garantir la cohésion sociale ? Quelles bonnes pratiques et leçons apprises peuvent-être identifiées ? Merci de fournir des exemples.

-      Sensibiliser les populations (nationales et étrangères) sur les droits et devoirs de chacun

-       faire bénéficier des formations professionnelles aux migrants

-      créer des opportunités d’emplois et offrir de meilleures conditions de travail aussi bien aux nationaux qu’aux migrants. 

-      Mettre en place en place des actions communes

Par exemple la commune et la société civile peuvent organiser des vidéos forum ou des activités culturelles regroupant et migrant et population autochtones sur les violences.

4. Les villes et les acteurs de la société civile ont tendance à être mis à l’écart lors de l’élaboration des politiques nationales et internationales relatives à la migration et à la protection des réfugiés, malgré le fait que ces politiques ont souvent un impact à l’échelle locale. Cela peut être dû à un manque de soutien, d’influence et de consultation à l’échelle nationale, ainsi qu’à un manque de compétences, de moyens et/ou de volonté politique. Quels obstacles à cette collaboration avez-vous rencontrés au travers de votre travail ? Comment les Villes et la Société Civile peuvent-elles travailler ensemble pour dépasser cette situation ? 

Ø  Obstacles

-      L’inexistence d’une base de données des acteurs de la société civile intervenant dans le domaine de la migration au niveau étatiques ce qui ne favorise pas l’implication de ces acteurs à l’élaboration des dites politiques.

-      Inexistence d’une politique nationale en matière de migration au Bénin ; ce qui rend difficile la mise en œuvre des actions venant de la société civile en faveur des migrants car les autorités locales, communales et nationales mettent du réserve pour accompagner les actions. 

Cependant, il faut que les acteurs de la société civile à travers les villes se fassent enregistrer par domaine d’intervention. Après s’être enregistré, elles se  concerteront pour adresser des plaidoyers aux autorités nationales afin de les amener à mettre en application une politique nationale dans le domaine de la migration. 

5.       5.      Quels sont les facteurs clefs de réussites nécessaires afin de garantir un partenariat multipartite effectif et de confiance entre les acteurs de la société civile et les villes dans leurs efforts visant à travailler ensemble pour exploiter le potentiel de la migration pour le développement ? Quels obstacles peuvent entraver ces partenariats ? Comment peuvent-ils être dépassés ? Merci de fournir des exemples.

- les acteurs de la société civile doivent impliquer les villes dans les actions de développement en faveur des migrants

- planifier et mettre en œuvre en collaboration avec les villes, des politiques et des projets à l’échelle locale,

- créer, gérer et coordonner en collaboration avec les villes les institutions et les services locaux

- appuyer les initiatives locales

Comme obstacles nous pouvons noter :

-      Instabilité des dirigeants (changements de responsables) surtout au niveau des villes et des organisations de la société civile.

-      La recherche à tout prix d’intérêts

-      L’opposition des objectifs

-      La contradiction dans les idées

Pour surmonter ces obstacles, les acteurs de la société civile et les villes doivent s’entendre et se mettre d’accord sur un même objectif

6.       6.      Ces dernières années, de nombreux pays dans lesquels des migrants vivent, étudient, voyagent ou transitent ont été disproportionnellement affectés par des conflits ou des catastrophes naturelles. Quel est le rôle de la société civile dans la préparation et la réponse aux besoins des migrants vivant dans des pays en proies aux crises ? Merci de fournir des exemples sur la manière dont la société civile peut aider à sauver des vies, protéger la dignité et les droits des migrants et soulager leur souffrance particulièrement au plus fort de ces crises.

- La société civile doit sensibiliser les aspirants à la migration sur le cycle migratoire  afin qu’ils s’intègrent facilement dans le pays de destination et qu’ils préparent aussi convenablement leur retour (réinsertion) dans leur pays d’origine en cas de conflits. Elle peut également jouer un rôle de médiation entre la diaspora et le pays d’origine des migrants en collaboration avec les organisations internationales et les associations de migrants

Partagez l’information !

N’hésitez pas à partager cette information et à encourager vos collègues, contacts et vote réseaux à prendre part à cette initiative.

Bien cordialement,

L’équipe ICMD

This contribution was provided by the municipality of Marsassoum, Sénégal

Quels sont les principaux enjeux migratoires dans votre municipalité ?(émigration / travailleurs immigrés / migrants de retour / intégration / transit …)

Réponse : travailleurs immigrés comme le cas des pecheurs maliens, qui ont du mal à s’intégrer parce que refusant de respecter les lois et règlements qui régissent  le secteur de la pèche.

Les immigrés guinéen qui sont des commerçants pour la plupart ne rencontrent pas de problèmes d’intégration

Egalement le retour pour la plupart mal préparé de nos émigrés. Pour les émigrés des difficultés à bien investir leur argent dans pays ou villes d’origine

Quel est l’impact de ces migrants sur vos villes ? A quelle requête devez-vous faire face ? Quels sont les principaux enjeux urbains concernés

Réponse : pour les pécheurs maliens c’est la surexploitation des ressources halieutiques. Cependant Ils assurent par ailleurs la régularisation du poisson et contribuent au budget communal avec les taxes sur les pirogues.

Pour les guinéens commerçants ils louent les souks de la commune et payent les patentes et certains décident de s’installer définitivement en faisant des investissements diversifiés.

Pour les émigrés ils étaient d’un soutien de taille pour les familles, mais également à travers leurs associations dans les pays d’accueil ils participent à la construction des infrastructures de base comme les écoles les maternités et de dons d’ambulance

Quels sont les principaux engagements de votre municipalité en matière de migration ? Comment avez-vous transformé ces enjeux en opportunité ?

Etablir une fiche complète d’identification des immigrés et émigrés
Créer un espace de dialogue surtout avec les émigres en rapport avec les délégués de quartier
Tenir des rencontrent d’échanges en rapport avec les services pour permettre aux immigrés d’être au fait des lois et règlement du pays
Pour ceux qui décident de s’installer mettre à leurs dispositions des parcelles à usage d’habitation
Pour les  émigrer la municipalité les accompagner à réaliser leurs projets d’investissement
Faciliter l’acheminement des dons obtenus au niveau de la commune

Quelles sont les meilleures mesures ou types de partenariat qui vous ont permis de conduire ces politiques locales en faveur de la migration ?

Le dialogue et la concertation permanente
L’appui des structures comme le GRDR  nous ont aidé a mieux cerner la problématique de la migration

Quelles sont vos recommandations pour inciter vos homologues au Sénégal à s’engager sur cette voie ?

De se rapprocher des structures de conseils sur la migration
De favoriser le dialogue et la concertation en impliquant tous les acteurs

Question complémentaire : y-a-t-il un autre message que vous souhaitez faire passer pendant le forum ? Souhaitez-vous rencontrer certains partenaires potentiels spécifiques ?

Je souhaite vivement rencontrer nouer des partenariats allant dans le sens de trouver des opportunités pour ma commune sur la gestion de l’environnement, l’appui pour rendre la ville propre etc .

This contribution was provided by the Red Cross EU Office

The International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and its 190 member National Societies have a long history of providing assistance to migrants throughout the world. Their work in the field of migration is inspired by the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, based on the 2009 Migration Policy and guided by the individual needs and vulnerabilities of migrants, irrespective of their legal status. The IFRC and its National Societies work with and for migrants along the migratory trail, in countries of origin, transit and destination. At a practical level, National Societies, in their unique auxiliary relationship with governments, strive to provide assistance and protection to all migrants, uphold their rights and dignity, empower them in their search for opportunities and sustainable solutions, as well as promote social inclusion and interaction between migrants and host communities. They also take part in local and national task forces and working groups with authorities and stakeholders at different level.
National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies often use different approaches to assist and protect migrants, depending on the needs in the community. Some National Societies may have targeted programmes or projects. Others include migrants in their general work, which address the needs and vulnerabilities of the population as a whole. Some of these areas of work may include:
Assistance National Societies provide food, shelter, clothing, healthcare, first aid and psychosocial support to migrants throughout their journey. Additionally, migrants are included in disaster risk reduction and disaster preparedness activities in disaster-prone communities.
Protection National Societies work with the International Committee of the Red Cross to restore links between migrants and their families and to protect migrants in detention. They also work to help improve detention conditions where necessary.
Advocacy and Awareness raising National Societies help migrants overcome barriers of exclusion and discrimination. They support the social inclusion of migrants, and reduce the potential for community tensions. Humanitarian advocacy on behalf of migrants can include interventions with authorities, public statements, messages, or campaigns. National Societies encourage public authorities to act against racism, xenophobia and the exploitation of migrants. They may also work with governments to alleviate hardship and the pressure to migrate, through improving services and economic development. Similarly, National Societies provide administrative advice and raise awareness among migrants of the risks and rights associated with migration, exploitation or human trafficking.
Integration and re-integration National Societies help to establish new community links for migrants, including labour migrants, as links with their families and communities at home are often weakened, and isolation can increase their vulnerability. As part of their work to improve conditions for
2
migrants, National Societies also provide reception services, and foster social participation and solidarity. An example of this is engaging migrants as Red Cross Red Crescent volunteers. To ensure that the specific situation of migrants is addressed appropriately, the IFRC and its member National Societies are also active at regional and international level.
At regional level, National Societies have established specific partnerships and Networks, such as the Platform for European Red Cross Cooperation on Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Migrants, the Regional Initiative on Migration in South East Asia, or the Doha Dialogue on Migration, a series of events hosted throughout Asia - Pacific and the Middle East/North Africa from 2014-2015. The events brought together a range of stakeholders involved in labour migration including humanitarian organisations, non-governmental organizations, governments, academics, research institutions and more, with the aim to address best practices and methods of collaboration. The goal was to also evaluate ways to improve relevant labour laws, policies and programmes to protect the rights and interests of expatriate workers. One of the main outcomes of the Doha Dialogue is the Manila Declaration on Women Household Service Workers.
International initiatives include, among the others: policies, humanitarian diplomacy at the highest levels such as the International Conference of the Red Cross or UN Fora, global campaigns, such as Stop Indifference – Protect Humanity, as well as the coordination of global actions aimed at promoting the rights of vulnerable migrants. The examples of Rights of Migrants in Action and the global study on the resilience of migrants are reported below.
Rights of Migrants in Action Rights of Migrants in Action is a 45-month project cofounded by the EU that aims at promoting and protecting human rights of migrants in targeted countries, migration corridors and regions through a globally coordinated civil society action, with a specific focus on migrant domestic workers and victims of human trafficking. The project addresses a wide range of vulnerabilities and needs encountered by migrants once settled and throughout their journey from countries of origin, to transit and destination. Activities include protection, healthcare, vocational training, legal and psychosocial assistance. Specific actions to raise awareness among migrants about their rights are also carried out, as well as advocacy initiatives targeting local and national authorities.
Smart practices that enhance resilience of migrants This global study, launched in September 2016, compiles 59 smart practices and 13 operational enablers that National Societies and other actors are using to enhance their response to the needs of migrants along the migratory route, from humanitarian assistance to social inclusion in communities of destination. The study and its consolidated findings are available in a newly-launched microsite, and are a continuation of the IFRC’s long commitment to collecting and promoting knowledge within the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, as well as with partners working to support people in need. The microsite is open to contributions and best practises from other stakeholders interested in sharing their experiences. While not being exhaustive, the contribution to this consultation aim at providing some best practices and the experience gained by the IFRC and its National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in favour of vulnerable migrants.
3
1. How can civil society support cities to ensure the inclusion and the protection of vulnerable migrants and refugees for enhanced resilience and development? What good practices and lessons learned exist?
CSO are best placed to provide access to services, legal assistance, trainings and targeted information on migrants’ rights, as well as to facilitate access to national referral mechanisms for victims of abuse or trafficking, asylum seekers and labour migrants.
Based on Red Cross experience, volunteerism can be a powerful means of promoting integration and social change, benefiting society as whole as well as individual refugees. Moreover, integration and social cohesion are more likely to succeed if refugees and migrants establish a network shortly after their arrival into their host communities. Refugees who are in frequent contact with locals generally feel more welcome in their communities, gain a better understanding of society and are generally more motivated to participate in society.
While continuing to provide humanitarian assistance to refugees and asylum seekers, in cooperation with their local and national authorities, several National Societies in Europe are focusing on community programmes aimed at helping people settle into their new communities. The German, Belgian, Italian, Finnish Red Cross, just to name some - are for instance currently playing an active role in language and integration sessions, vocational training, family tracing services, medical care and psychosocial support for people suffering from stress and trauma. Some European Red Cross Societies run safe houses and shelters for victims of human trafficking and propose counselling, legal advice, psychosocial support and group therapy. A clear added value is provided by volunteers and migrants involved as cultural mediators.
Case Study: Resettlement reception programme, Finland
Volunteers trained by the Finnish Red Cross welcome migrants who are resettled, accompany them to receiving municipalities, and support their integration.
The Finnish Red Cross plays an important role in the initial integration process for the migrants. Prior to arrival migrants are provided orientation, including basic language training, by IOM. When they enter Finland, up to 17 volunteers with years of experience and training meet them at the airport and facilitate entry. Volunteers help them with immigration authorities.
The Finnish Red Cross has developed a good relationship with border control authorities and leverage this relationship to make sure incoming migrants under this programme are processed without problems. For example, the volunteers share information with the immigration officials on who is expected on a given day; this allows advance preparation of the necessary procedures. In addition, the volunteers serve as a go-between and explain to migrants what to expect. Volunteers are also provided with information on any urgent health needs for arriving migrants and make the necessary preparations on the ground prior to their arrival.
After airport formalities are completed, volunteers then transport the migrants to the municipalities. Authorities in the municipalities are provided with information on expected arrivals in advance. Volunteers help these migrants with the initial process of moving into their homes and remain involved during integration. Frequent communication with volunteers and municipalities post-reception ensures that all relevant matters are discussed
4
and addressed. Finland has had a resettlement programme since 1979; in 2015, 1,050 people were resettled.
Case Study: Bridging the Local Community and “Friends Pave the Way” in Denmark
The Danish Red Cross is working jointly with the Government, municipalities and volunteer associations to develop and test practical tools, methods and models for strengthening the effort in integrating newly arrived refugees.
“Bridging the Local Community” is a project that aims at developing and test methods and models to strengthen strategic cooperation between local government and civil society in order to ensure the best possible integration of refugees.
Using the method of co-creation, key actors from municipalities and civil society jointly identify needs and formulate new solutions to integration challenges. Through the project, public authorities and civil society are gaining knowledge and understanding of each other’s strengths, which results in more clearly defined roles, better use of resources, a strengthening of commitment and more sustainable and long term solutions. The project has been ongoing from January 2014 - December 2016 involving five Danish municipalities and over 30 civil society organisations.
Through activities such as mapping workshops, identification of 3-5 areas of focus, involvement of refugees etc. ways of cooperating on integration are developed and tested.
Results from the project Bridging the Local Community have lead to the creation of models and best practices to be used in implementing the project in other municipalities.
The project management is shared between the Danish Red Cross and the Danish Refugee Council. In addition, there are five local steering committees operating within the communities. Their members are municipal employees, both from field and management level as well as representatives from volunteer associations. A national advisory group containing representatives from the Ministry of Immigration, Integration and Housing, The National Council for Volunteering, Local Government Denmark etc. is monitoring the project.
The “Friends Pave the Way” program matches refugees who have been granted residence with a volunteer buddy. A buddy provides the newly arrived refugee with practical guidance in their encounter with the host community, a network, and cultural and lingual interpretation easing the way for the new citizens into Danish society. Buddies are provided training by local Red Cross volunteer coordinators within their community. The coordinators support, supervise and recruit buddies among locals and they themselves are supported and trained by professional consultants from the Danish Red Cross.
Organizing community meetings where representatives from municipalities, volunteer associations and organizations are invited by a Red Cross branch to engage in dialogue on how to coordinate and pool resources. Through systematic sharing of information between municipalities and civil society it is ensured that refugees are offered a volunteer buddy shortly after they arrive.
The buddy program is presently implemented in over 45 municipalities. Due to the development in the refugee crisis the Red Cross, the Danish Refugee Council and other volunteer organizations are jointly scaling up activities and expanding to all municipalities.
5
The program draws upon the considerable goodwill which has manifested itself among thousands of citizens expressing their wish to volunteer.
Case study: Support to vulnerable migrants returning to communities of origin in Indonesia Cooperation among CSOs and local authorities is also important when there is need to reintegrate former migrants returning to their communities and families. As an example, in 2013, the Indonesian Red Cross signed an MoU with the National Department of Manpower. As one of the first steps to strengthen cooperation in migrant worker services, the Red Cross and local authorities have started organising Support Group Sessions in which returnee domestic workers can share their experiences with other women and get support from the Red Cross’ psychosocial support experts. In cases where the domestic migrants face severe psychological problems, PMI also provide psychoeducation sessions for the families. Other forms of support include vocational training and health assistance. The first PMI Support Group Session took place in the village of Cireunghas, in West Java Province in March 2014. Similar activities, coordinated by the Indonesian Red Cross, are carried out also by Iocal CSOs involved in the IFRC-managed project Rights of Migrants in Action.
2. What is the role of civil society in supporting local and regional authorities to reach out and engage with diaspora? For example, in order to foster their support in integration, social protection, promoting labour rights and fostering knowledge transfer, entrepreneurship and investment for local development? Please provide examples. While this in not a core activity of National Societies, some of them, especially in Asia - Pacific, provide assistance to their nationals working abroad, in cooperation with local authorities and National Societies of receiving countries. The Philippine and Macau Red Cross Societies established for instance a partnership to provide welfare services to Overseas Filipino Workers, including migrant domestic workers in Macau. The project was coordinated with government agencies in both countries, and included activities such as counselling, psychosocial evaluation, crisis intervention, child assistance, ambulance services, tracing and family reunification, health services and referral to other institutions. The Pakistan Red Crescent is working on migration issues both within the country and with Pakistani workers overseas. The National Society has established telephone helplines and social media outlets for Pakistani workers overseas so they can keep, for instance, in contact with their families.
In order to empower migrants and reduce vulnerability, information shall also be provided before the departure from the communities and countries of origin. This will allow migrants to take informed decision and be less subject to risks of human trafficking, violence or exploitation throughout their journey and once arrived in the country of destination. As an example, the Bangladesh Red Crescent and the Philippine Red Cross provide pre-departure briefing and information leaflets to domestic migrant workers, in coordination with governments and recruitment agencies. Similar activities are carried out by CSOs that are implementing partners of Rights of Migrants in Action in Zimbabwe and Indonesia.
6
3. How can civil society and cities work together to combat xenophobia, violence and ensure social cohesion? What good practices and lessons learned exist? Please provide examples. According to Red Cross experience, young volunteers are key players in order to combat violence and xenophobia and ensure integration of migrants at community level. Agreements allowing young trained volunteers to visit schools, interact with their peers and promote a culture of nonviolence and peace should be encouraged in all communities, especially those hosting large numbers of migrants. Case Study: sensitisation of young students at school – Project “On the Run” in Sweden
The project organizes role plays in which children in schools re-enact the migration journey. Designed to foster empathy and understanding of what migrants have had to go through, it increases acceptance among young people in host communities. The Swedish Red Cross youth manages the On the Run project, in which young people in schools role play forced migration scenarios in workshops organized by volunteers. The role plays aim to increase understanding among Swedish youth of the realities of forced migration, to increase their empathy and acceptance of migrants.
To be realistic and emotionally compelling, the role play is based on the stories of actual migrants and simulates situations that arise when fleeing a country. Participants face a series of difficult choices and their decisions can bring severe consequences in the simulation. The role plays help participants understand in a more tangible way what it means and feels like to be displaced. Participants play the role of migrants and interact with instructors who play the roles of characters that migrants meet when migrating. The session ends with information and discussion of migration flows in the world and highlights the right to asylum. The role play is a way to increase understanding of what it can mean to be on the run and to work for humanity and human rights. n 2015, a total of 3,593 young people took part in role plays. Between January and May 2016, 2,136 young people participated. A collection of best practices from National Red Cross Societies in Europe and Central Asia in the area of youth and migration, including through the Youth as Agents of Behavioural Change (YABC) approach, is available in the IFRC Youth and Migration Handbook.
4. Both cities and civil society actors tend to be side-lined from national and international policy- making pertaining to migration and refugee protection, despite the fact that such policies often have an impact at the local level. This can be due to a lack of support, voice and consultation at national level, as well as a lack competencies, means and/or political will. What obstacles to collaboration have you encountered through your work? How can cities and civil society work together to overcome these? Please provide examples.
Promoting and strengthening existing partnerships and opportunities of dialogue through programmes and initiatives such as the JMDI, the Global Mayoral Forum, the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD) and the Policy Forum on Development (PFD) is an occasion to enhance coordinated action and mutual cooperation at the local and regional level. These occasions bring together different stakeholders such as local, national and regional authorities, international organisations, CSOs, migrant and diaspora networks and donors. A common engagement to the follow up of these initative is crucial.
7
5. What are the key success factors to ensuring a trusting and functional multi-stakeholder partnership among civil society actors and cities in their efforts to work together to harness the development potential of migration? What obstacles can hinder such partnerships? How can these be overcome? Please provide examples.
To ensure a functional partnership among CSOs and local authorities, it is important to enhance the participation of migrants in the consultation and decision making process at the local level. In cases where local authorities do not have technical capacities or resources, but have political will and commitment to address the integration of migrants, simple acts such as the provision of physical spaces where CSOs could set up activities or provide information for migrants, where beneficiaries, volunteers and cultural mediators could meet, might result extremely cost effective. Other kind of agreements might include access to shelter and short term accommodation for particularly vulnerable categories, such as victims of human trafficking. Community centres could be used to promote joint events for both hosting and hosted communities, including the youth. CSOs can also play a strong role in strengthening the capacities of local authorities. They are well placed to raise awareness and provide trainings not only to migrants, but also to key stakeholders, such as municipality clerks, teachers, or local police forces. The Croatian Red Cross in cooperation with the British Red Cross and with the support of the Croatian Government has for instance developed an e-learning module that can be used by frontline practitioners to identify victims of trafficking and to assist them to access their rights. The training is offered to Red Cross staff and volunteers, as well as police forces and other involved actors. Training on human trafficking, national and international legislation and rights of migrants are also offered to police forces and public officials in countries implementing Rights of Migrants in Action, such as Zimbabwe and Jordan.
6. These past few years, we have numerous incidences of countries experiencing conflict or natural disasters where migrants living, working, studying, traveling or transiting in these countries have been disproportionately affected. What is the role of civil society in preparing for and responding to the needs of migrants in countries experiencing crises. Give examples of how civil society helped in saving lives, protecting migrants’ rights and dignity and alleviating their suffering especially at the height of these crises.
While governments maintain the overall responsibility to guarantee the safety of their citizens and of those who finds themselves in their territory, civil society organisations and local administrations play a key role in assisting people forced to move and in reducing disaster risks. To reduce disaster risk, the IFRC and its National Societies have three main strategies: to strengthen the preparedness and capacities of communities so that they are in a better position to respond when a disaster occurs; to promote activities and actions that mitigate the adverse effects of hazards; and to protect development projects such as health facilities from the impact of disasters.
8
Understanding communities and their coping strategies should include looking at the socio-economic dimension of mobility in those communities, which will help tailor responses during and after a crisis. In pre-crisis situations, it is therefore important that tools that prepare communities for hazards, such as evacuation plans, vulnerability assessments and trainings, take into account migrants not only as beneficiaries, but also at the level of planning and implementation of preparedness activities. By focussing on local communities both at the rural and urban level, the IFRC’s Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment (VCA) is an important tool for National Societies not only to understand whether migrants have access to resources and services or whether they encounter obstacles to mobility, but also to better integrate them in the decision making process and for host communities to take advantage of other experiences. In situations of crisis or emergencies, when third parties might prevent migrants from receiving assistance, pre-emptive measures shall be taken to ensure that migrants are included in general humanitarian action, as well as in disaster risk reduction and response. The Migrants in Countries in Crisis Initiative (MICIC) guidelines, recommendations and principles, to which the IFRC has contributed in the past years, represent a valid although non-binding tool to increase protection and assistance of migrants caught in countries in crisis.

This controbution was made by the Global Coalition on Migration

3rd Mayoral Forum Civil
Society Online Consultation
September 2016

The Global Coalition on Migration (GCM) is pleased to provide our inputs to the civil society online
discussion in preparation for the 3rd Mayoral Forum in Quezon City, Philippines. In addition to the
answers to the specific questions circulated online, our members would like to point you to the
following resources that may be helpful in informing your thinking and plans.

Press Release, 14 September , City of Chicago
Amendment to “Welcoming Cities” ordinance in Chicago (the original was passed in 2012).
The amendment clarifies that documented and undocumented migrants are to be treated
with dignity and respect by all.

“Building a resettlement network of European cities and regions” (2016), International Catholic
Migration Commission (ICMC)
In order to gather and capitalize on the wide expertise gained over the past four years
through the work of the ICMCled

SHARE Network, ICMC Europe published this report. The
report constitutes a thorough summary of the policy reflections, tools, resources and
recommendations developed by the SHARE members (link is external) during the course of
the network’s activity. It is aimed at offering guidance to local and regional actors willing to
implement refugee reception projects in Europe, but also to support the advocacy efforts of
many organizations working in the field.

“Access to Health Care for Undocumented Migrants in Europe: The Key Role of Local and Regional
Authorities” (2014). Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants (PICUM)
See pages 6 & 9 for citylevel examples. Note, this publication will be updated in 2017.

“The Sexual and Reproductive Health Rights of Undocumented Migrants: Narrowing the Gap
Between their Rights and the Reality in the EU” (2016), Platform for International Cooperation on
Undocumented Migrants (PICUM)
See page 23 for the example of Gothenburg, Sweden concerning sexual and reproductive
health rights of undocumented women.

“Guide to the EU Victims’ Directive: Advancing Access to Protection, Services, and Justice for
Undocumented Migrants” (2015), Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented
Migrants (PICUM)
See page 20 for examples of safe reporting of undocumented victims of crime to the police in
Amsterdam and San Francisco.

“Protecting undocumented children: Promising policies and practices from governments” Platform
for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants (PICUM)
See page 14 for examples from Florence, Turin, and Genoa. See page 22 for examples from
Utrecht.

Questionnaire Responses from Alianza Americas
How can civil society support cities to ensure the inclusion and the protection of vulnerable
migrants and refugees for enhanced resilience and development? What good practices and lessons
learned exist?

It is very difficult to ask someone who is extremely vulnerable and in the act of dangerous migration
to step out of that reality and participate in organized response. That is why we have found it is so
important to engage organized migrants’ groups who are both deeply embedded in the community as
well as in a more stable situation to respond to challenges.

Here in North America, we can provide the very recent example of the migrant/refugee crisis of
people fleeing violence in the Northern Triangle countries of Central America. This problem came to
the public attention in 2014, with heartbreaking pictures of children in detention centers on the US
Southern Boarder. But of course, it has its roots in systemic problems that go back many years. As an
immigrantled coalition, Alianza Americas was one of the first groups to recognized the magnitude of
the crisis, and begin calling for a coordinated response, as early as 2014. Migrantled
groups, including our members, have been the most dogged about keeping this issue in the public eye, long
after it might have dropped off the advocacy agenda otherwise. Concrete outcomes from that work
include:

● successful advocacy in San Francisco and Los Angeles (pushed by CARECENSF
and CARECEN LA ) to obtain municipal and state funds to provide legal services to children and families
seeking asylum;
● municipal resolutions to support healthy integration of immigrant children in Massachussets
( Centro Presente );
● an interagency cooperation Summit to respond to the influx of Salvadoran and Honduran
children in the MDDCVA region (convened by CARECENDC) and subsequent pledges from
local schools and agencies.
Lessons learned: 1. Engagement with migrantled
groups is critical, both for understanding the need,
and identifying a response; 2. Innovations can be made at the local level, even when the national
policy is a barrier.
How can civil society and cities work together to combat xenophobia, violence and ensure social
cohesion? What good practices and lessons learned exist? Please provide examples.
Cities are often more progressive in their response to immigrants than the rhetoric at the national
level would suggest. Alianza Americas has had good results with the following approaches:
● Local ordinances: A youth group in Massachusetts (convened by Centro Presente) succeeded
in getting Somerville, MA to pass an ordinance resolving not to use the word “illegal
immigrants” in any of its official documents. These symbolic statements can send a powerful
message that xenophobia will not be tolerated.
● There are a number of campaigns to build persontoperson
connections around racism and xenophobia. The “Somos/We Are” campaign uses children’s art as an entry point for
community conversation. 

Both cities and civil society actors tend to be sidelined from national and international policymaking pertaining to migration and refugee protection, despite the fact that such policies often have an impact at the local level. This can be due to a lack of support, voice and consultation at
national level, as well as a lack competencies, means and/or political will. What obstacles to
collaboration have you encountered through your work? How can cities and civil society work
together to overcome these? Please provide examples.

It can indeed be frustrating for both local officials and local civil society when they are confronting
immediate problems that seem to be ignored or worse at the national level. As an immigrantled
organization, we have had the best results when reaching out directly to local elected officials. This is
an element of civic engagement that goes far beyond voting—it is about collaborating with local
officials who genuinely want to help, but may need additional knowledge about the immigrant
community. For example, Alianza Americas recently organized a delegation of elected officials (state
and local) from Maryland and Massachusetts (two areas in which many unaccompanied children from
Central America have been resettled) to the Northern Triangle countries. This weeklong
trip produced many concrete ideas, and also helped build trust between immigrant civil society leaders
and local elected officials

What are the key success factors to ensuring a trusting and functional multistakeholder
partnership among civil society actors and cities in their efforts to work together to harness the
development potential of migration? What obstacles can hinder such partnerships? How can these
be overcome? Please provide examples.

Key Success Factors:
● Trust—person to person contact and a sense of shared purpose
● Resourcesvoluntary
organizations (as many immigrantled
groups are) need support if they
are to engage successfully in this work. Similarly, municipalities must recognize the
importance of this engagement and invest. One example: Montgomery County Maryland
Latino Engagement officer—this position bridges local civil society, countries of origin and the
county government.
● Bridgebuildershere
is where diaspora and migrantled
organizations come into play. They
have the language and cultural resources to make connections between vulnerable
communities and officials.
These past few years, we have numerous incidences of countries experiencing conflict or natural
disasters where migrants living, working, studying, traveling or transiting in these countries have
been disproportionately affected. What is the role of civil society in preparing for and responding
to the needs of migrants in countries experiencing crises? Give examples of how civil society helped
in saving lives, protecting migrants’ rights and dignity and alleviating their suffering especially at the
height of these crises.
Here it may be useful to refer to some of the results of the Migrants in Countries in Crisis Initiative
(MICIC) an intergovernmental
process facilitated by the International Organization on Migration.
That body determined that working directly with Migrantled
or diaspora organizations was critical in
pre/during/and postcrisis
action for many reasons, including capturing deep cultural competency.
Migrants/diasporas have demonstrated value as transnational bridges who can lift up issues that
might be invisible to mainstream. One example that was cited was the role of the Zimbabwean
diaspora in Europe, which was key in disseminating the information of the plight of Zimbabweans in
South Africa after Xenophobic attacks in 2015. See:
( http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/04/zimbabweansleavesouthafricaxenopho...
421090720956.html )

Ultimately, this pressure resulted in a rescue effort for stranded Zimbabweans. This and other
examples can be found in this MICIC report and there are others on their website:
http://micicinitiative.iom.int/

Questionnaire Responses from members of Global Migration Policy Associates
An introductory comment
We of course welcome the Global Mayoral Forum on migration and development initiative and its
efforts encouraging mayors and city governments worldwide in engaging with migrants and
migration. We also welcome this questionnaire and the Forum outreach to concerned civil society
organizations. However, the questions overall reflect an ideological standpoint and analytical
framework we find challenging, in its apparent assumptions about authority of government; what
“civil society” is; vulnerable migrants: migrants as vulnerable versus migrants with agency and rights
(including right to the city); contrasting references to identity of diaspora or (im)migrant; ambiguity
about whether the agenda is supporting migrants to go 'home' to develop origin place or to become
participatory part of city. We find troubling the reference to 'harnessing development potential'
however that is defined; ultimately it may be hard to avoid implications applying to people in utilizing
terms usually associated with proprietary work animals. Who gets harnessed by whom and for whose
benefit?

How can civil society support cities to ensure the inclusion and the protection of vulnerable
migrants and refugees for enhanced resilience and development? What good practices and lessons
learned exist?

In our experience, the primary questions are or should be different, recognizing that important
challenges are cooperation and mutual support between civil society, social partner, faithbased,
social service and other groupings are far from singular, unitary or homogeneous 'civil society'.
Secondly, the core interrelated
issues are inclusion, protection, participation and integration of all
migrants and refugees, an approach distinct from distinguishing and focusing on certain groupings
disempoweringly characterized as vulnerable. However, specific attention within that larger agenda
for cities is normally directed towards individuals and groupings at particular risk: children, women,
LGBTI, visible minorities etc.
Volunteers are often also active in trade unions, faith groups and other organizations, and are
professionally engaged in the civil service, in private companies, and in NGOs, or were so before they
retired. These networks enable them to provide access to employment and subsequently to mediate
between employee and employer. A vulnerability arises from wellmeant
engagement to get refugees
into employment quickly without regard to their skills and professional experience, or without
supporting them further during the initial period of orientation on the job and in the company when
this is not explicitly being provided by the company itself. A further vulnerability arises from
employment on terms not fully compliant with the law. In highly regulated labour markets and
employment relations such nonstandard
employment may be the only way of gaining initial local
work experience but after a period of laisserfaire
a transition to standard employment should be
facilitated. In this process volunteers must not be victimized. Instead they can be made agents in
facilitating the transfer, a role they may only be able to fulfill, if city officials can be cooperated with
on an eyetoeye level.
Volunteers have been providing adhoc
language training and orientation in the new surroundings.
Such activity is time consuming and often leads to other supportive activities outside the particular
volunteer’s range of expertise or even experience. Sometimes attachment to NGOs solves the
problem but for individual volunteers as much as for NGOs supporting cities is clearly a matter of also
being supported by the cities, primarily by a cooperative attitude and conduct, by being kept informed
and by absorbing information from volunteers, and by recognizing the contribution to social cohesion
and defending it against detractors as well as effectively protecting volunteers from hostility.
What is the role of civil society in supporting local and regional authorities to reach out and engage
with diaspora? For example, in order to foster their support in integration, social protection,
promoting labour rights and fostering knowledge transfer, entrepreneurship and investment for
local development? Please provide examples.
Diaspora defines people by their relationship to and engagement with country of origin, not
necessarily and certainly not primarily denizens or migrant residents in the city. The question is
ambiguous: is it home city authorities reaching to emigrated residents abroad or is it approaching
migrants on the basis of their foreign identity from – and tied to – somewhere else? In our reading of
successful city and civil society partner experience, outreach is necessarily to arriving and resident
refugees and migrants as arriving denizens, with 'right to the city,' to 'services for all' and to
participation in (mutual) integration, social protection, realizing rights. The references to knowledge
transfer, entrepreneurship and investment are similarly ambiguous, which locality are they referring
to? For many if not most migrants and refugees, the order of concern is for schooling, language
instruction, recognition of qualifications, and employment – to be selfsupporting
and participate in social and economic life and development of city of residence. Only a relative few in any
circumstances have the class and economic background to privilege entrepreneurship and financial
investment.

Refugees and migrants are an integral part of civil society. A native gobetween
would often not be necessary if city administrations were more adept at connecting with the immigrant or minority part
of society. Hiring more from this pool of talent and experience would help in such an effort. Native
civil society organizations are themselves not necessarily as open to immigrants and refugees as
would be desirable. Cities could assist them and perhaps prod them to reach out and include,
especially if the organizations are closely tied to the administration.
How can civil society and cities work together to combat xenophobia, violence and ensure social
cohesion? What good practices and lessons learned exist? Please provide examples.
Firstly, “xenophobia”, must be addressed with reference to and embedding in discrimination and
racism: overcoming and preventing discrimination and racism. The societal context and legal
framework require grounding work against xenophobia and preventing violence to be grounded in
overarching values, law and (city) policy of nondiscrimination/
equality of treatment and opportunity for all and antiracism
law, policy and practice.

There are plenty of examples going back decades, on several continents. ILO did an online
compendium with more than 100 detailed practice profiles some years ago, it is no longer online.
Currently, several online platforms offer examples of city practices on migration, some specifically
addressing equality of treatment, antidiscrimination
and preventing xenophobia: Cities of Migration
– Eurocities – Urbact – The ECCARUNESCO
project is also developing a compilation.

City administrations are large employers who first of all must take action to keep their own employees
from acting out their own xenophobia, especially while on the job. As in private companies this is best
done by drawing up a comprehensive set of rules covering behaviour in regard of all the prohibited
forms of discrimination and harassment, doing so as a cooperative effort between management and
workforce, spelling the rules out in a sufficient number of employee meetings in various settings also
taking into account the interfaces between various parts of the organization and between them and
outside organizations and the public, and finally enforcing the agreed rules, especially immediately
after they have come into force. Not effectively countering discrimination within the administration is
a large obstacle to cooperation with civil society.

Both cities and civil society actors tend to be sidelined from national and international policymaking
pertaining to migration and refugee protection, despite the fact that such policies often have an impact at the local level. This can be due to a lack of support, voice and consultation at national level, as well as a lack competencies, means and/or political will. What obstacles to
collaboration have you encountered through your work? How can cities and civil society work
together to overcome these? Please provide examples.

It is a bigger question than “sidelining”; this question begs understanding the nature and function of
States generally dominated by elites, and the exercise of centralized power to maintain and benefit
from dominance by subordinating other political units to central government authority. At the same
time, the question also requires taking account of processes of decentralization that shift
responsibilities to localities, but often without adequate means, generally leaving local governments
with more responsibilities and fewer resources to fulfill functions at the local level. This challenge is
raised consistently by many cities responding to the recent ECCARUNESCO
survey, as well as generally across recent literature.

The literature and city survey reports indicate that 'decentralization' as well as inappropriate rights,
duties and resources conferred to different levels of government is constraining some European cities'
capacities to meet significantly increased demands for housing, health, social services, etc. resulting
from refugee arrivals. In some country situations, arriving refugees are centrally assigned to localities
in relatively large numbers, not necessarily with adequate additional resources from central or
regional governments, while the refugee arrivals are certainly consequences of national and
international policies – and/or the failure of appropriate national and international humanitarian
responses.

Like the media government and party leadership commonly falls prey to only taking bad news
seriously. Cities and civil society need to take communication more seriously. They need to provide
the wordings and the experiences national leaders can quote and cite.
It must be recognized that the economic crisis that broke in 2008 and is set to continue for years to
come provides an increasingly absorptive climate for bad news and makes countering them ever
harder. A much larger, much more serious effort to address the crisis and its symptoms would likely
help a great deal in making the public more discerning in regard of migration and refugee arrivals.
Such an effort may not result in breaking the crisis but would at least show awareness and a credible
attempt to deal with this single largest issue there is in Europe today.
What are the key success factors to ensuring a trusting and functional multistakeholder
partnership among civil society actors and cities in their efforts to work together to harness the
development potential of migration? What obstacles can hinder such partnerships? How can these
be overcome? Please provide examples.

A trusting and functional partnership at all levels starts with different premises and objectives. Some
of us have ancestors who risked and even lost their lives unharnessing
involuntary African migrants from realizing the development potential of native eliterun
agricultural and industrial enterprises. As a starting point, trusting partnerships need to have inclusion, equality of treatment, and participatory
empowerment on or underlying their action agendas. The 'development potential' of migration is
bound up in participation and selfdirected empowerment of migrants and refugees to enable
'integration' and engagement in economic and social activities; these together are unquestionably the
most critical bases of personal, social and economic 'development' of migrants, the communities they
live in, and ultimately their communities of origin.
Obstacles to partnerships are often the utilitarian and/or opportunist agendas of certain partners,
and/or government authorities.
A number of examples of functional cooperation and partnerships between city governments and
other stakeholders have been identified by an ECCARUNESCO
survey of European cities; profiles of some will be published later this year.

These past few years, we have numerous incidences of countries experiencing conflict or natural
disasters where migrants living, working, studying, traveling or transiting in these countries have
been disproportionately affected. What is the role of civil society in preparing for and responding
to the needs of migrants in countries experiencing crises? Give examples of how civil society helped
in saving lives, protecting migrants’ rights and dignity and alleviating their suffering especially at the
height of these crises.

This is an important question, but important considerations include the likelihood that independent
civil society actors and organizations are often among the first to be targeted and 'neutralized' by
belligerents in such conflicts. Another concern around this question is international policy discourse
and concrete measures seeking to 'contain' refugees “close to home,” regardless of whether safe
haven in conditions of rights protection and dignity is assured, and collateral efforts to enlist 'civil
society' in taking on responsibilities States have abdicated, individually and/or collectively.
There are many examples from times immemorial where civilians and groups assisted, gave shelter
and assisted victims of war, persecution as well as disasters; the concept of sanctuary dates from
preChristian
Old Testament times, as does the targeting of civilians – especially foreigners and civil
society in warfare.
It is also an evolving question in Western industrialized countries, where many refugees and migrants
face crisis experiences, including violence, persecution, arbitrary detention, denial of assistance, etc.
A big question to address is protection of civilians, human rights defenders and humanitarian actors,
whether domestic or international. An example of the challenge in industrialized countries is the
increasing enactment across Europe of laws on the 'délit de solidarité' the crime of solidarity, and the
increasing legal prosecution of people – individuals or civil society groups – who give aid or assistance
to refugees, asylum seekers or undocumented migrants. Also in several countries North and South
(for example, Malaysia, the USA) the emergence of armed antimigrant
vigilante groups, some tacitly
or officially sanctioned by government authorities, which exercise authority to detain migrants and to
destroy water and food supplies of migrants in transit.
A number of cities and several regional authorities in some Western countries have taken measures
such as declaring themselves “sanctuary cities” or more commonly instructing city authorities,
particularly health, social and other services, to provide assistance and services to all on
nondiscriminatory
basis, including regardless of immigration status, and to “firewall” personal data
from immigration or other authorities.
For reference, GMPA is currently working in cooperation with the ECCARUNESCO
“Welcoming Cities
for Refugees” programme, conducting research and developing guidance publications on cities
reception and integration of refugees and migrants.
The GMPA team includes Associates who have collaborated with citysupported
programs and social
services for refugees since the 1970s, including an Associate who directed a citylevel
(and city
supported) refugee reception and resettlement program in Seattle and another who has long had an
advisory and research support role with the city of Vienna, Austria on migration and migrant
integration, as well as currently a staff researcher who is a Masters degree candidate in urban studies.
Questionnaire Responses from Carol Barton, United Methodist Women &
Women in Migration Network (WIMN)
How can civil society support cities to ensure the inclusion and the protection of vulnerable
migrants and refugees for enhanced resilience and development? What good practices and lessons
learned exist?
NYC is a “sanctuary city”, which means there is a “firewall” between delivery of services and migration
enforcement (allegedly that is). When NYC had local elections for local school boards, residents could
vote in those elections regardless of status. Those no longer exist, unfortunately, as educational
system has been centralized. Meanwhile, City Council leadership has been pushing for a bill that
would allow migrants to vote in NYC elections (which has not passed).
City Council passed a NYC ID card which is accepted by NYC agencies for access to services, ID for the
police, ability to open bank accounts, library cards, ID for secondary school exams and more [see:
http://www1.nyc.gov/site/idnyc/benefits/benefits.page ]. A goal is to get citizens to also register for
the ID card, through incentives such as museum and zoo memberships.
Some members of the NY city council work closely with local migrant rights groups in “know your
rights” education. This was particularly urgent this past year when word went out that ICE would
round up Central American refugees. City and civil society worked together in know your rights
advocacy and support. Raids were ultimately limited.
In addition, NY state passed a “dream act’ law which extends “instate”
tuition to undocumented
students who attended high school in the state. This applies to students who attend NYC University
(CUNY).
http://www.cuny.edu/about/administration/offices/sa/specialprograms/Cuny...
City Council Speaker Melisa MarkViverito
is herself a Latina immigrant from Puerto Rico. Beyond the
initiatives above, last year she joined with foundations to launch an initiative to empower young
women of color NYC, specifically mentioning immigration status as one of the barriers girls face.
http://www.blackstarnews.com/nywatch/
politics/youngwomensinitiativeprogramsforempowerin
gwomenofcolor.
html . It began a year ago with a planning process that brought advocates, policy
experts and young women and girls themselves together to make recommendations on how to
improve the lives of young women and girls in New York City. The result is a set of policy and
budgetary recommendations to improve the lives of young women and girls in the City. The New York
City Council allocated $10 million over two years to commitment to YWI, a figure matched by
philanthropic partners.
Downside of relations: NYC “Stop and Frisk” policing laws utilized racial profiling for random police
stops, where 80% of those stopped were people of color. Often migrants without papers could then
be handed over to immigration enforcement. Migrant groups were active in the creation of a
citywide
coalition to end the practice of stop and frisk—evidence of how crosssectoral
organizing,
beyond migrant communities, are essential in building power to stop such policies. This coalition
played an instrumental role in the election of the current mayor, who opposed Stop and Frisk. Two
years into his term, he has had a difficult relationship with the police and also with many communities
of color. While Stop and Frisk was suspended, a similar policing program called “Broken Windows”
which targets minor crimes (carrying alcohol on the street, jumping a metro turnstyle) pull people into
the criminal justice system, and often then into the migration enforcement system. However, the
profiling is not as rampant as before. An important point to make is that crosssectoral
coalitions
were central to victories. So when we speak of civil society at the municipal level, it should not only
be migrant groups—there is greater impact if campaigns address issues that impact the larger
community as well.

This contriution was provided by Mayor Gorgui Ciss of Yene (Senegal):

Civil society is supporting them for migration and development issues, through both associations and NGOs.

Local associations are composed by return migrants who talk and represent migrants for the municipality who are still abroad. They help representing their concerns and needs.

 

We also have the support of an NGO dedicated to both emigrants and immigrants. They carry awareness raising to local populations on the dangers of irregular migrations. They also support return migrants and immigrants to set up in the municipality and help them integrating. This concerns both foreign immigrants and Senegalese immigrants from other regions of Senegal.  They help them prepare their project and liaise with us when they need us.

 

They also help getting some new partners abroad, and we are currently working with them on a project their propose on a “House for migrants” that will be an institute and observatory that will help gather data and information on our migrants, and develop new dialogues. This will be manage by the civil society, but will also be a lot of help for us as these data will make us able to know where our migrants are, what are their needs, and what we can build with them. The Municipality will have a focal point there that will help liaising with the municipality constantly.

We strongly rely on these associations for our policy toward migrants and to manage their expectations and impact with local development stakes.